How do the kidneys and nephrons work?

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    Today's lecture was about urinary system. However, the instructor was tired. The powerpoint was bad (she said she lost hers last night and sat up all night redoing it). The information doesn't make sense. Can someone please explain to me or provide me with a reference on the kidneys function? We went over the nephrons and I made notes on the photos with arrows and everything but even looking over it I can't quite make sense of it. I do record the lectures and will be listening to it over but still need help. I dont have any clue about angiotensin II. What is it? where does it come from? What exactly is the JG Apparatus? How does Renin work? What if someone has a hyper or hypotension? Does the renin secrete to bring up that pressure or is it only with fluid overload/dehydration? When the RBC and protein leave the Glomerulus and go to the Efferent Arteriole do the smaller particles also go? My understanding is that they go on to the proximal convoluted tubule. If that is the case do they ever meet up again? Then how do you get protein in your urine? How are bad RBC excreted?

    Any information is greatly appreciated. (Supposedly we are going over this material again tomorrow)
  2. 20 Comments so far...

  3. 1
    When I was confused on subject matter, I would google it. There would be tons of links. Sooner or later I found one that explained it in terms that made sense to me. Some were animations, some were drawings, some were simply someone verbally explaining it. Give it a shot on Google and see if some of these questions can be answered.
    TheSquire likes this.
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    Try Youtube, as well. They may have a good animated video.
    You are asking for much more information than can be explained here.
    Don't worry, you'll get it, but it will take some effort.
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    It would take pages upon pages to explain to you how the kidneys and nephrons function, but if you just want a good ppt on the subject, here's my class's list of powerpoints: http://web.uaccb.edu/AcademicDivisio...owerslides.htm
    on eagles wings likes this.
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    Um...I used my A & P textbook. There is a reason we spend so much money on them.
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    The kidneys took me a long time to work through. Only in pathophysiology did I begin to get it. But, it really is SO important and I agree with all of the pp's suggestions.

    As for R-A-A in brief. When bloodflow to the kidney is reduced (think hemorrhage, etc. -- hypotensin) the kidney is stimulated to produce renin. Renin then converts the circulating angiotensinogen into angiotensin I. The angiotensin I continues to circulate and then in the lungs ACE converts it to angiotensin II which is the active form. Look at the name angio tensin. It causes the vasoconstriction which increases MAP. Angiotensin II also stimulates the production (or release - I'm brain farting at the moment) of aldosterone. Aldosterone causes reabsorption of water and sodium in the distal convoluted tubule, which also raises MAP by increasing volume.
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    My best friend in A&P was my butcher paper. I would take a 3' or 4' piece and draw out everything, the kidney (with afferent & efferent BV), where the juxtaglomerular apparatus was and the different cells that make it up. Draw the proximal and distal convoluted tubules and which hormone(s) affected each branch, what the hormone does and where it came from. It forces you to put all the pieces together in one place.
    jil_, itsmejuli, and CoffeemateCNA like this.
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    For some reason, the kidneys, RAA, their effects on body chemistry, etc., fascinated me.

    I found so many great online sites that had wonderful animations. Even my M/S text had an online link to animations. Being able to visualize greatly aided my understanding. After "getting it" then I could draw the pathways.

    There are countless resources available.

    Online animations also helped in my understanding nerves, cardiac, and GI.
  10. 1
    Quote from DolceVita
    Um...I used my A & P textbook. There is a reason we spend so much money on them.
    Exactly!! I was flabbergasted reading through the OP and responses. Google? Youtube??

    Seriously?

    The instructor is there to give an overview, answer any questions and enhance the information you should have already read in your textbook.

    My goodness.
    itsmejuli likes this.
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