medications affecting the cardiovascular system:adrenergic agonists:
alpha adrenergic blocker:
- examples: epinephrine, dopamine, dobutamine, isoproterol
- dopamine cause renal vessels to dilate, others lead to vasoconstriction, increased heart rate, increased myocardial contractility, bronchodilation, decreased nasal congestion (due to vasoconstriction)
- side effetcs: increase heart rate, vasoconstriction, increased oxygen demand leading to angina, dysrhythmias
- don't give to pt with tachydysrhymias, or v. fibrillation. al
alpha adrenergic agonists:
- examples: minipress aka prazosin, cardura aka doxazosin
- used to treat hypertension, doxazosin may decrease symptoms of bph
- side effects hypotension
- take with food but avoid otc nsaids b/c decreases antihypertensive effects
beta blockers- end in-lol
- examples: catapress, tenex, aldomet
- used for hypertension
- side effects: dry mouth, sedation, rebound hypertension (so don't just stop taking the meds with talking to dr.)
ace inhibitors end in -pril
- used to decrease hr, myocardial contractility and rate of conduction through av node.
- used for angina, hypertension, dysrhythmias, mia and heart failure
- causes bradycardia (if bp is less than 60 then hold meds) decreased cardiac output, av block, hypotension,
- propranolol causes bronchoconstriction
- theses drugs can masks the signs of hypoglycemia!!!!!
angiotension ii receptor blocker ends in -sartan
- used for hypertension, heart failure mi and diabetic and nondiabetic neuropathy
- causes orthostatic hypotension, cough, hyperkalemia, rash and angioedema. also causes neutropenia.. think about it like this... ace inhibitors causes angioedemia, cough and excessive-potassium .
calcium channel blockers end in -pine
- used for hypertension, stroke, diabetic neuropathy (vasodilation).
- causes angioedema (skin wheeling and swelling of tongue), fetal injury
- used vasodilation by blocking calcium channels in blood vessels.
- used for angina pectoris and hypertension. verapamil is also used for cardiac dysrhythmias
- side effects: reflex tachycardia, peripheral edema, toxicity, hypotension, constipation
- examples: sodium nitroprusside, hyperstat
- side effects: hypotension, cyanide poisoning and thiocyante poisoning
- sodium nitroprusside may have slightly brown color but discard if it is blue, red or green and don't mix other meds with sodium nitroprusside
digoxin (cardiac glcosides)
- used for stable angina
- side effects: headache, hypotension, reflex tachycardia, tolerance,
- if you give it with viagra it could result in life threatening hypotension! also alcohol use and contribute to antihypertensive effects
- sublingual: take at first sign of chest pain, use prior to activity that will cause chest pain, place under tongue and allow to dissolve, store in cool dark place, and discard after 24 months.
- transdermal: patch should not be cut, place on hairless area and rotate sites,. wash skin with soap and water and dry thoroughly before placing patch, remove patch at night so that you don't develop tolerance
- if pain is unrelieved in 5 mins then call 911, client can take up to two more doses at 5 minute intervals.
read antidysrthmic drugs.... it is complex....
- used to increase force of myocardial contraction but decrease heart rate so ventricles have more time to fill.
- treats heart failure and atrial fibrillation.
- side effects dysrhythmias, monitor potassium b/c hyperkalemia and lead to dig toxicity, monitor dig level to ensure that it is between .05-.08
- side effects_ gi: n/v, anorexia, abdominal pain, fatigue, weakness, diplopia, blurred vision, yellow-green or white halos around objects
- ace inhibitors increase risk of hyperkalemia which decreases effects of digoxin, quindine increase risk of dig toxicity if used concurrently.
- notify dr if heart rate is less than 60 bpm in adults, 70bpm in children and 90bpm in infants before taking meds.
- treat bradycardia with atropine
meds to control cholesterol end in -statin
meds to control triglycerides include lopid, lofibra, tricor
- side effects- heptoxicity, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy
bile acid sequestants- questran and colestid:
- side effects: gall bladder stone, mypopathy, hepatoxicity
- take meds 30 mins before breakfast and dinner
- used to lower cholesterol, decreases ldl
- side effetcs are constipation
- don't give to someone with biliary disease
if anyone notices any major errors, or any additional information that you think we should know for the exam, please post on thread. :typing
notes taken from ati book- pharmacology
Last edit by jenrn2008 on Mar 27, '08