Pediatrics is FULL of them.
A frequently encountered one... Jehovah's witnesses and blood transfusions. Can the Jehovah's Witness parent refuse blood transfusion for their child based on their religion even if the child will die without the transfusion? In my state, the answer is no and the hospital will get a court order to administer blood despite the parents' refusal.
HIV in children and disclosure. I have seen this one many times. If a child has HIV, it's likely that they got it via vertical transmission which means that at least the mom if not both parents also have HIV. Young children cannot understand what having HIV means and are likely to walk around announcing it to people who perhaps shouldn't know... and then those people infer that the parents also have the virus. At what age should disclosure happen? Do the parents have the right to privacy for as long as they desire or is there a point in adolescence where the health care worker needs to step in above the parents' protest and disclose to the child?
Pre-implantation genetic testing to create a sibling as a bone marrow or kidney donor.
Genetic diseases that we can test for before symptoms onset. Things like Huntington's and ALD come to mind. I've seen it with a child with ALD (X-linked). When he was diagnosed, the question of whether or not to test and then TREAT the brother (with experimental stem cell transplantation) prior to symptom onset was discussed.
Children with severe congenital defects that would lead to long term disability... to treat or not to treat? We CAN prolong their lives but do nothing to reverse their disabilities: http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/Jou...ssue_ID=934467
Parents who do NOT want to treat their children for various illnesses and then on the flip side, those who do despite a terminal diagnosis. Should we be able to force a parent to treat their child for, say, leukemia (something like a 90% survival rate with current treatment) even though the child could suffer long term effects from the treatment? Should we trach and vent a child with a terminal high grade brain stem tumor who is on death's door?
The mature minor rule. If a 16 or 17 yr old doesn't want to proceed with treatment for whatever they have, whose decision is it? Should a parent be able to force a 17 year old to have his leg amputated due to osteosarcoma or is it the 17 yr old's decision? If a 16 or 17 year old patient wants to terminate treatment for cancer, do they have the right to do so?
A famous case from many years ago: The Ashley Treatment, Ashley Treatment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia