Mnemonics and Memory Aids
- 45The HYPERKALEMIA "Machine" - Causes of Increased Serum K+
M - Medications - ACE inhibitors, NSAIDS
A - Acidosis - Metabolic and respiratory
C - Cellular destruction - Burns, traumatic injury
H - Hypoaldosteronism, hemolysis
I - Intake - Excesssive
N - Nephrons, renal failure
E - Excretion - Impaired
signs and symptoms of increased serum k+
- m - muscle weakness
- u - urine, oliguria, anuria
- r- respiratory distress
- d - decreased cardiac contractility
- e - ecg changes
- r - reflexes, hyperreflexia, or areflexia (flaccid)
- 19hypernatremia"you are fried"
f - fever (low grade), flushed skin
r - restless (irritable)
i - increased fluid retention and increased bp
e - edema (peripheral and pitting)
d - decreased urinary output, dry mouth
can also use this one:
s = skin flushed
a = agitation
l = low-grade fever
t = thirstLast edit by VickyRN on Mar 4, '06
- 11memory joggers - awesome web resource!
to remember which blood types are compatible, visualize the letter “o” as an orb representing the universe, because type o blood is the universal donor blood. patients with any blood type can receive it. but o also means “odd man out”: patients with type o blood can receive only type o blood. think beep to remember the signs of minor bleeding:
b: bleeding gums
e: ecchymoses (bruises)
e: epistaxis (nosebleed)
p: petechiae (tiny purplish spots)
having difficulty distinguishing hypoplasia from hyperplasia? when you see plasia in any word, think of "plastic." plastic, in turn, means forming or developing. as for hypo and hyper, that’s the easy part. hypo means under, or below normal. hyper means excessive, or above normal. thus, hypoplasia means underdevelopment, and hyperplasia means overdevelopment.
a stand-up comedian who gets no laughs might say his audience has humoral immunity. but humor is the latin word for “liquid,” and humoral immunity comes from elements in the blood — specifically, antibodies. contrast this with cellular immunity, which comes about through the actions of t cells.
"hook" for serum sickness: each letter stands for a key sign or symptom of serum sickness.
esp for skin biopsy? the three different techniques — excision, shave, or punch — used to secure a skin biopsy specimen.Last edit by VickyRN on Mar 4, '06
- 9memory joggers for pathophysiology
to remember the four causes of cell injury, think of how the injury tipped (or tipd) the scale of homeostasis:
t: toxin or other lethal (cytotoxic) substance
p: physical insult or injury
d: deficit, or lack of water, oxygen, or nutrients.
when asking assessment questions, remember the american cancer society’s mnemonic device caution:
c: change in bowel or bladder habits
a: a sore that doesn’t heal
u: unusual bleeding or discharge
t: thickening or lump
i: indigestion or difficulty swallowing
o: obvious changes in a wart or mole
n: nagging cough or hoarseness.
use the abcd rule to assess a mole’s malignant potential:
a: asymmetry--is the mole irregular in shape?
b: border--is the border irregular, notched, or poorly defined?
c: color--does the color vary (for example, between shades of brown, red, white, blue, or black)?
d: diameter--is the diameter more than 6 mm?
- 5Mar 8, '06 by VickyRN Senior ModeratorQuote from princess_g63Here's one tidbit for ABG's:these are very helpful thanks!!! does anyone have anything helpful about ABGs fluid and electrolytes we have alot of info covered in a small time on test tues anything would be appreciated... have a good one!!!!