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RNliveoak

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RNliveoak has 10 years experience.

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  1. Nursing is an important and essential profession, and nurses serve as the backbone of the healthcare system. As such, various types of frequent large and complex demands are placed on this population on a continual basis. Challenges within the healthcare industry can create significant social (i.e., absence of fairness) and organizational (i.e., work overload) sources of chronic stress and burnout for the nurse. These sources have been found to be the largest contributors to nursing burnout. Sensory Processing Sensitivity Indeed, nursing is a stressful profession with high levels of burnout. Hence, researchers have been investigating other associations to stress and burnout as well. From an individual perspective, personality has also been found to play a partial role in the experience of stress and burnout. Dispositional variables such as the Five Factor Model (FFM; i.e., extraversion, openness, negative emotionality, etc.) personality types have been researched within the context of nursing to gain a deeper understanding of their impact on one’s chronic stress. The inclusion of those such as the FFM has helped this research along, but recent evidence suggests that the unique and innate personality trait of Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS) may also provide further insight into this issue. Having this trait increases one’s potential to be overwhelmed by certain aversive stimuli both internally and environmentally, thereby leading to emotional and behavioral difficulties. Examples of aversive stimuli might be negative social situations, rapidly changing or unpredictable environments, or certain or personally overwhelming noises, lights, smells, or odors. Thus, overwhelming or aversive stimulation can lead to increased stress, placing those with SPS at risk for occupational stress and burnout. This may be important to consider, given that it is estimated that approximately 20% of all people have the SPS trait. According to Gray, the three most common nursing stressors are workload, death and dying and inadequate preparation. Maslach’s three burnout dimensions are emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. SPS has yet to be expansively and exclusively studied within this particular context of nursing, or even nursing in general. The current research explored the most common nursing stressors as well as burnout levels in nurses that are considered highly sensitive by nature in comparison to their less sensitive peers. Distribution of Highly Sensitive People in Nursing: Stress Results 252 registered nurses and licensed practical and vocational nurses were recruited from Allnurses, Facebook, Reddit and a Southern Texas hospital. Results revealed that nurses with SPS were significantly more prone to stress and burnout after controlling for potential covariates and other significant personality factors. Upon hierarchical regression, after age, gender, years of nursing experience and the FFM types were controlled for, SPS was significant at p<.01 with 3.3% of the variance for overall nursing stress. Inadequate preparation (pertaining to the inability to deal effectively with patients and their families) was significantly predicted by SPS, with p<.01 with 5.8% accounting for the variance of nursing stress. Workload was also predicted by SPS, with p<.01 with 5.3% accounting for the variance in nursing stress. Negatively emotionality was the only FFM personality type that significantly predicted nursing stress, representing 5% of the variance at p<.01. Gender was a non-significant predictor for both stress and burnout. Negative emotionality was significant at p<.01 with 11% of the variance for stress. Burnout Results For burnout, SPS was significant at the p<.01 level with a variance of 9.2%. Emotional exhaustion was also significantly predicted by SPS, with p<.01 with 7.6% of the variance. The implications of these findings overall reveal that SPS is a unique construct which predicts stress and burnout separately and in addition to the commonly used FFM types. In general, this study shows that Highly Sensitive People (HSPs; those with the SPS trait) are more prone to increased stress and burnout as nurses, particularly emotional exhaustion. Due to this finding, people who happen to be highly sensitive in an already emotionally demanding profession such as nursing may also be able to better understand part of the reason for their current predicament with regards to chronic stress and burnout from emotional exhaustion. Knowing this should empower them to re-assess the level of stimulation that they can tolerate on a day-to-day as well as long-term basis. Implications In practical terms, this means that the HSP may have to figure out other ways to preserve their emotional energy during each shift, as most of it will be spent with people in general. For instance, the nurse may want to make an assessment of which people require the most expenditure of energy during interaction. The HSP could then better determine in a disciplined manner on appropriate time limits for spending with each person, including patients, and also how they choose to interact with those individuals or when they interact with them. In other terms of practicality, the HSP may also have to make an even more difficult decision on whether or not to stay in the current nursing setting or environment. HSPs take longer to recharge emotionally, and highly or chronically stressful work tends to bleed over into one’s personal life, affecting other areas of life not previously considered to be associated with a stressful work environment. Thus, for the HSP, it is highly important to be present in a work environment in which one does not feel constantly emotionally drained from. Lastly, the current study’s findings naturally implicate the organization. On this level, working to alleviate the most frequent and intense nursing stressors would be the most practical way to assist all nurses in addition to HSPs themselves. Conclusion In conclusion, a better understanding of the trait of SPS would most likely provide valuable contributions to many stressful and helping occupations. Since SPS exists in roughly 20% of the world’s population, the societal impact of this construct could be significant. Furthermore, the field of Psychology recognizes the importance of individual differences. As more of these differences are discovered, the increased complexity of the human condition will be more fully represented by studying traits such as SPS. To the Allnurses community: Thank you for all of your help with my thesis research. I sincerely could not have done it without you. I have as of recent successfully defended my thesis at the university I currently attend. REFERENCES Acevedo, B., Aron, E., Aron, A., Sangster, M., Collins, N. & Brown, L. (2014). The highly sensitive brain: an fMRI study of sensory processing sensitivity and response to others' emotions. Brain and Behavior, 4(4), 580-94. 10.1002/brb3.242 Adeb-Saeedi, J. (2002). Stress amongst emergency nurses. Australian Emergency Nursing Journal, 5(2), 19-24. Aiken, L.H., Clarke, S., Sloane, D.M., Sochalski, J. & Silber, J.H. (2002). Hospital nurse staffing and patient mortality, nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. Alarcon, G., Eschleman, K. J. & Bowling, N. A. (2009). Relationships between personality variables and burnout: A meta-analysis. Work & Stress, 23(3), 244-263. 10.1080/02678370903282600 Aron, E. N. (2004). Revisiting Jung’s concept of innate sensitiveness. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 49, 337-367. Aron, E. & Aron, A. (1997). Sensory-processing sensitivity and its relation to introversion and emotionality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 345-368. Aron, E., Aron A., and Jagiellowicz, J. (2012) Sensory processing sensitivity: A review in the light of the evolution of biological responsivity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16, 262-282. Bakker, K., Moulding, R., (2012). Sensory-Processing Sensitivity, dispositional mindfulness and negative psychological symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(3), 341-346. Benham, G. (2006). The highly sensitive person: Stress and physical symptom reports. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(7), 1433-1440. Bianca P. Acevedo, B., Aron, E., Aron, A., Sangster, M., Collins, N., & Brown, L. (2014). The highly sensitive brain: An fMRI study of sensory processing sensitivity and response to others’ emotions. Brain and Behavior, 4, 580-594. Cañadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A, Vargas, C., San Luis, C., García, I., Cañadas, G. R., & De la Fuente, Emilia I. (2015). Risk factors and prevalence of burnout syndrome in the nursing profession. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52(1), 240-249. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.07.001 Charnley, E. (1999). Occupational stress in the newly qualified staff nurse. Nursing Standard, 13(29), 33-36. doi:10.7748/ns.13.29.33.s55 Cooper, C. L., Dewe, P. J., & O'Driscoll, M. P. (2001). Foundations for organizational science. Organizational stress: A review and critique of theory, research, and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc. Cooper, T. M. (2014). The integral being: A qualitative investigation of highly sensitive persons and temperament-appropriate careers (Doctoral dissertation). Evers, A., Rasche, J., & Schabracq, M. J. (2008). High sensory-processing sensitivity at work. International Journal of Stress Management, 15(2), 189-198. Gray-Toft, P. & Anderson, J.G. (1981a). Stress among hospital nursing staff: Its causes and effects. Social Science Medicine, 15A, 639-647. Halbesleben, J. R. B. (2008). Handbook of stress and burnout in health care. New York: Nova Healy, C. & McKay, M. (1999). Identifying sources of stress and job satisfaction in the nursing environment. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17(2), 30-5. Heim, E. (1991). Job stressors and coping in health professions. 18th European Conference on Psychosomatic Research (1990, Helsinki, Finland). Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 55(2-4), 90-99. Helps, S. (1997). Experience of stress in accident and emergency nurses. Accident and Emergency Nursing, 5(1), 48-53. Hipwell, A. E., Tyler, P. A., & Wilson, C. M. (1989). Sources of stress and dissatisfaction among nurses in four hospital environments. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 62(1), 71-79. Jaeger, B. (2004). Making work work for the highly sensitive person. New York, NY, US: McGraw-Hill. Jamnik, M.R., Lane, D. (2017). The use of Reddit as an inexpensive source for high-quality data. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 22(5), 1-10. Jawer, M. (2005) Environmental sensitivity: A neurobiological phenomenon? Seminars in Integrative Medicine, 3(3), 104-109. doi: 10.1016/j.sigm.2005.10.003 John, O.P. & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L.A. Pervin & O.P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and Research (Vol. 2, pp. 102-138). New York: Guilford Press. Khamisa, N., Oldenburg, B., Peltzer, K., Ilic, D. (2015). Work Related Stress, Burnout, Job Satisfaction and General Health of Nurses. Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(1), 652-666. doi:10.3390/ijerph120100652 Lasalvia, A., Bonetto, C., Bertani, M., et al. (2009). Influence of perceived organisational factors on job burnout: Survey of community mental health staff. Br J Psychiatry. 195(1), 537-544. Lindsay, S. J. (2017). The highly Sensitive Teacher: Sensory-Processing Sensitivity, burnout, and self-efficacy in urban public school teachers (Doctoral dissertation). Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. (1982). Burnout in Health Professions: A Social Psychological Analysis. In G. S. Sanders, & J. Suls (Eds.), Social Psychology of Health and Illness (pp. 227-251). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Maslach, C., Jackson, S.E., & Leiter, M.P. (1996). Maslach Burnout Inventory. (3rd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. Maslach, C., Jackson, S.E., & Leiter, M.P. (2012). Making a significant difference with burnout interventions: Researcher and practitioner collaboration. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(2), 296-300. Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (2008). Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(3), 498-512. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.498 McNeely, S. (1995). Stress and coping strategies in nurses from palliative, psychiatric and general nursing areas. Employee Counselling Today, 7(5), 11-13. Renzi, C., Di Pietro, C., & Tabolli, S. (2012). Psychiatric morbidity and emotional exhaustion among hospital physicians and nurses: Association with perceived job-related factors. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, 67(2), 117-123. doi:10.1080/19338244.2011.578682 Renzi, C., Tabolli, S., Ianni, A., Di Pietro, C., Puddu, P. (2005). Burnout and job satisfaction comparing healthcare staff of a dermatological hospital and a general hospital. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 19(1), 153-157. Roberts, R. K., & Grubb, P. L. (2013). The consequences of nursing stress and need for integrated solutions. Rehabilitation Nursing, 39(2), 62-69. 10.1002/rnj.97 Shatz, I. (2016). Fast, free, and targeted: Reddit as a source for recruiting participants online. Social Science Computer Review, 35(4), 537-549. Smolewska, K. A., McCabe, S. B., & Woody, E. Z. (2006). A psychometric evaluation of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale: The components of sensory-processing sensitivity and their relation to the BIS/BAS and “Big Five”. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1269-1279. Solanki, C., Parmar, K., Parikh, M., & Vankar, G. (2017). Gender differences in work stressors and psychiatric morbidity at workplace in doctors and nurses. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 3(12), 3840-3847. Soto, C. J., John, O. P. (2017). Short and extra-short forms of the big five inventory-2: The BFI-2-S and BFI-2-XS. Psychology & Psychiatry Journal, 68, 69-81. Tyler, P. A., Carroll, D. & Cunningham, S. E. (1991). Stress and well-being in nurses: A comparison of the public and private sectors. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 28(2), 125-30. Vahey, D.C., Aiken, L.H., Sloane, D.M., Clarke, S.P. and Vargus, D. (2004). Nurse Burnout and Patient Satisfaction. National Institutes of health; 42(2), 1157-1166. Wolfgang, A. P. (1988). Job stress in the health professions: A study of physicians, nurses, and pharmacists. Behavioral Medicine, 14(1), 43-47.
  2. Hi Crystal-Wings, thanks for sharing.
  3. Thank you for your post.
  4. HI Luchador, there is also a self-test at hsperson.com, if you are interested. Thank you for your reply.
  5. Hi 37changes, thanks for writing. What a timely thing to do before you decide where to work! You should get great information out of that (by E. Aron)! There are great things about being highly sensitive too, I just couldn't include both in my study. Maybe one day. Congratulations on graduating, and good luck.
  6. Highly Sensitive People make up roughly 20% of any given population. Given this group is more sensitive to internal and external stimuli, those that are highly sensitive might consider how this could affect their work as a nurse. My study aims to offer some insight into this questions Hello Everyone! I'm an RN and am wondering if anyone would be willing to help me with my graduate thesis by taking my online survey. It is on stress and burnout in nursing, and I am researching some newer aspects of personality and cognition. I would really appreciate it! Everything will be kept anonymous and confidential. The survey takes about 15 minutes to complete, and you need to be a practicing RN, LVN or LPN within the U.S. The number of times allowed for survey participation is one. Thank you all for your help! I have included a more formal description of my study below, but if you would like to go ahead and take the survey, here is the link: https://angelo.az1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_3m9RwEJMiAcG5BX Highly Sensitive People To date, Highly Sensitive People (HSPs) have never been researched within the context of nursing stress and burnout, or even nursing in general. Although this is true, Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS), the temperamental trait that characterizes one as a Highly Sensitive Person, has only existed since 1997, and more widespread research on the construct did not begin until several years later. This refers to this particular construct, which is specifically defined within the literature. HSPs make up roughly 20% of any given population (Aron, 2012). This group can become more overwhelmed by internal and external stimuli, which stems from certain physiological processes within the brain. Examples of these stimuli are loud noises, too much social or emotional stimuli, or stimuli from the moods of others, strong smells, bright lights or new or changing situations (Aron & Aron, 1997; Acevedo et al., 2014). When overwhelmed, those with the trait of SPS can experience heightened levels of both stress and burnout at work. Stress in Nursing In addition, the nursing profession has been ranked by the US National Institute as one of the top 40 most stressful careers to have (Heim, 1991). Out of a study among physicians, pharmacists and nurses, Wolfgang (1988) found that nurses ranked the highest in stress levels by a significant degree. Also, research by the American Nurses Association (ANA) revealed that nurses ranked being overworked and the effects of stress as the most serious concerns in their profession, which has not changed in nearly a decade (Roberts & Grubb, 2013). Burnout in Nursing According to one study, burnout accounted for the largest explanation in mental health as well as physical health disparities of nurses (Maria, 2012). Cooper, Dewe & O'Driscoll (2001) describe burnout as the result of being exposed to stressful working circumstances for a protracted period of time, reflecting a state of both emotional and physical exhaustion. Burnout is divided into three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment (Renzi et al., 2012). Lastly, knowing that both HSPs and nurses are affected by stress and burnout, I believe this research is vital. Although different forms of sensitivity have been measured in the past in different ways, these previous tools did not measure what we know it today to represent, which includes a more defined set of criteria. We are still lacking insight into things that lead to stress and burnout (other than work-related causes) in some of our most vulnerable populations, such as nursing. Therefore, my goal with this research is to find more answers concerning the backbone of the healthcare industry: nurses! Thank you for reading! When my thesis has been completed, I will post the conclusions of the study for you all to see, most likely under the same title. If you are interested in my thesis research survey, here is the link again: http://angelo.az1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_3m9RwEJMiAcG5BX References: Acevedo, B., Aron, E., Aron, A., Sangster, M., Collins, N. & Brown, L. (2014). The highly sensitive brain: an fMRI study of sensory processing sensitivity and response to others' emotions. Brain and Behavior, 4(4), 580-94. 10.1002/brb3.242 Aron, E. & Aron, A. (1997). Sensory-processing sensitivity and its relation to introversion and emotionality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 345-368. Aron, E., Aron A., and Jagiellowicz, J. (2012) Sensory processing sensitivity: A review in the light of the evolution of biological responsivity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16, 262-282. Cooper, C. L., Dewe, P. J., & O'Driscoll, M. P. (2001). Foundations for organizational science. Organizational stress: A review and critique of theory, research, and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc. Maria, N. (2012). Burnout among staff nurses: Examining the causes, coping strategies and prevention. Arcada, 1-51. Renzi, C., Di Pietro, C., & Tabolli, S. (2012). Psychiatric morbidity and emotional exhaustion among hospital physicians and nurses: Association with perceived jobrelated factors. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, 67(2), 117-123. doi:10.1080/19338244.2011.578682 Roberts, R. K., & Grubb, P. L. (2014). The consequences of nursing stress and need for integrated solutions. Rehabilitation Nursing, 39(2), 62-69. 10.1002/rnj.97 Wolfgang, A. P. (1988). Job stress in the health professions: A study of physicians, nurses, and pharmacists. Behavioral Medicine, 14(1), 43-47. 10.1080/08964289.1988.9935123
  7. RNliveoak

    Worst Nursing Scrub Color Worn?

    Apparently my girlfriend has witnessed the lime green scrubs before. I am still surprised anyone would have to wear this color, however!
  8. RNliveoak

    If the government legalizes marijuana in the US...

    I agree. This issue has an obvious political charge. I would hope that we could talk about other issues surrounding the target issue in this forum, but this only works if we can avoid personal attacks.
  9. RNliveoak

    If the government legalizes marijuana in the US...

    I think right now there is a little too much research that contradicts other research saying that pot is physically and mentally safe for various purposes. One study infers that smokers tend to suffer more from affective disorders such as bipolar disorder. Then there is another study suggesting that working memory and decision-making is mildly impaired in weed smokers as well. I also think the insurance industry would have to be regulated from above to provide some benefits that could be related to use, or, the research needs to be fleshed out significantly, which I think will take awhile. http://adai.uw.edu/pubs/pdf/2017mjbipolar.pdf COMORBID MOOD, PSYCHOSIS, AND MARIJUANA ABUSE DISORDERS: A THEORECTICAL REVIEW
  10. RNliveoak

    Worst Nursing Scrub Color Worn?

    Hi Ruby Vee, this is the first poll that I have ever created. Do you have any tips? Or, was anything confusing about the questioning? Thank you for responding anyways! I personally dislike royal blue because that was my nursing school's uniform color.
  11. RNliveoak

    Worst Nursing Scrub Color Worn?

    Hi Everyone, Besides white scrubs, I was wondering what you all thought the worst scrub color that you have ever had to wear as a nurse? And this can be for any reason... whether it makes you feel silly, reminds you of something gross, or makes you feel unattractive, reminds you of a past employer where a different occupation was assigned that color, etc.. Feel free to take the poll. Thanks!
  12. RNliveoak

    Shared Governance Leadership: 10 Lessons

    I look forward to hopefully writing many more.
  13. RNliveoak

    Need Advice

    Hi Michellelove, Absolutely, I would totally apply again... but I also see two other ways to go about gaining progress on your goal. One is a possible front-end solution. If you have any friends who work in the department you seek that has a good relationship with the manager, you could ask them to inquire directly for you or simply put in a good word on your behalf prior to you submitting your application. This may help in avoiding any negative impressions from memory that she may have from the last time, assuming she has any at all that is. Also, your friend may also help to create a favorable initial impression on your behalf as well. The other is a back-end solution. If say you did apply and happened to interview again and then got denied the position again, then it is totally within your right to politely inquire as to the reason(s) why you were turned away for the position. If you are willing to move on anyways after the second attempt, then maybe it would be too late to take any feedback at this point for this job; but if you still want it, then its possible there could be something you can work on that is within your control to help your aim with any future attempts thereafter. And, feedback is just good to have as long as you are motivated to receive it and the feedback is truthful and accurate. I know this is reaching into the future here, but if you do get another interview, and the issue of job-hopping or "commitment" comes up, then that would be your chance to turn perception in your favor by 1) figuring out how to honestly explain the reasons behind your past frequent job switches in a way that sets you up to explain #2, which is: 2) think beforehand the most important, earnest and substantive reasons why you want to be a part of that department, and how (if this is true), once you have obtained the job you have wanted the entire time, your own motivation and commitment will not be an issue while at this new job because of those reasons. The key here is to not come off as desperate. The best way to do this is to really work on developing any good-willed or aspirational reasons for why you want to join and aid her team and really think about those reasons beforehand. And I have to say after this long response that all of this is pretty much my own opinion and I could totally be wrong on all of this stuff. With that being said, I hope you find something in this useful. Good luck!
  14. RNliveoak

    Shared Governance Leadership: 10 Lessons

    Thank you sincerely, Nurse Beth!
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