The best approach for your situation may depend alot on your teacher, the curriculum, his/her testing style, and your own personal learning style.
Here is what worked for me, but it may or may not apply to you:
Quote from grace0804
1. What should I do when I disagree with a teacher's answer in a test? What I did was to argue, but no result.
I'd suggest not arguing. I'd approach it as a question : "I thought in class such-and-such did X and that's what I tried to explain, but you took points off. Do you have a moment to explain the detail of X?"
Never confront a prof in front of other students. It can make them feel defensive. Wait until class is over or catch them in office hours.
I also have the outlook that even the best students can misunderstand a questions sometimes. I aim for a 100% on my A&P exams, but I know even when I memorize everything perfectly, there's sure to be some little thing I misunderstood. In other words, just be really solid on all your studying, so one little misunderstanding won't knock you down a letter grade.
2. Which way do you think is the most effective way to memorize exactly and quickly? When I try to memorize words of A&P, what I do just repeats and repeats.
Depends on your personal learning style. I try to be as awake and attentive in class as I can, so I can get a start on absorbing things in class. Then I will re-write the notes. If it's a particularly confusing lecture, I'll put away those notes for a moment & I'll listen to my lecture tape, making all new notes. Then I'll compare the two to see where the misunderstanding might be.
In our A&P class, the prof only tested on lecture material. I used the book only to clarify things. I also picked up a A-and-P made simple book which almost completely followed my professor's content.
Study groups are so helpful!
Flashcards and re-writing lists were helpful for me just for straight memorization.
Definitely study a little each day. NEVER try to cram it in the day or two before an exam.
3. Do you think the teacher's notebook is as important as the textbook or more important than the textbook? How to use both of them effectively? When I studied A&P, I mainly read the textbook instead of the teacher's notebook.
Depends on the class and what you're tested on. Also depends on your textbook: some are good and some will just drown you in trivia. You can't learn everything about everything in 1 or 2 semesters, so try to find out what the professor finds is important.
4. Do you have any tip of dividing a heavy task, such as reading a chapter of the textbook? I spent five hours on reading the chapter, and always had little time to read the notebook after that.
Does she test on both lecture AND textbook? I'd try to figure out what she's looking for in exams, and I focus on that.
If it's a really long painful chapter, I'd break reading it into subsections. I'd read and outline only that subsection, and then I'd review it until I understand. Only then would I move on. I'd budget my time so that I'd be done this whole process many days before an exam. This way I can re-read (a little more quickly) and work on filling gaps in my notes. Throughout the whole thing I am always asking myself: what is the key concept? Why is this important? Does this item have anything special about it? I try to make connections (oh wow, this is just like the epithelial tissue in such-and-such organ) or I try to look for patterns (it makes sense now why we need cilliated tissues here but not there).
I do end of chapter textbook questions. I also did all the questions in that Barrons A-and-P made easy book. Anything I got wrong, I added to a 'fuzzy' list (things I was still unsure of). I'd put the books away for a few hours, then return to focus on the 'fuzzy' list. If there were a lot of words, such as the muscle system, I put the whole bunch of flashcards.
I also liked to make counts of things (the # of items on any given list), so I'd always know if I knew a list or not. If I couldn't quickly summarize the __ functions of such-and-such, I KNEW that was an item to re-study.
I think a big problem students have is knowing when to keep (or stop) studying. Then they're never sure if they're confident in the material, and nerves cause them to make silly mistakes on an exam. Between my self-testing and my study groups, I know I am ready when I can recite every concept or list the professor covered. Even better, when I help the struggling classmates, it helps me get better. I know I've mastered it when I can go through and explain it all to someone else. Sometimes we'd borrow an empty classroom, and we'd work on drawing systems on the whiteboard, correcting each other when mistakes were spotted.
One last thing: on items I am still unsure about, I definitely get clarification from the professor before the exam. Be aware some texts, study guides, and online resources may disagree on some details or names, depending on when it was written. If you're unsure which is the more accurate answer, ask the prof, and go with whatever he/she says. Office hours are there for a reason! Don't expect tons of free tutoring, but any good prof will be happy to answer a list of questions you bring them. Some are great about replying via email, which means not having to wait for office hours. A bonus of talking to them one-on-one is that they see you're trying hard, and sometimes they'll throw you tidbits of advice to give you an edge.
Good luck to you! I am just finishing my A&P Part 2 now, and I was able to hold a high A average in both Part 1 and 2. I believe anyone can get an A in A&P, if they're willing to put in the time (lots of time!). Just expect not to have much of a social life until it's over.