Help with my nursing care plan assignment related to asthma and gas exchange Help with my nursing care plan assignment related to asthma and gas exchange | allnurses

Help with my nursing care plan assignment related to asthma and gas exchange

  1. 0 Hello,
    i am a first year nursing student and i have an assignment on a case study of a lady with asthma. i am asked to concentrate on her respiratory problems relating to impaired gas exchange.

    i am having real dificultly understand this, and actually writing answers to the question. help would be much appreciated.

    questions are:

    -explain why impaired gas exchange occurs in asthma ie: identify the pathophysiological processes that occur in asthma and explain how these processes impair gas exchange.

    - why the signs and symptoms occur when gas exchange is impaired

    - identify priorities ie: explain whats goals of nursing care should be met first and why

    i have been searching for so long for information, just not sure whats exactly relevant.
    my main problem is apply the information to answers.


    thanks
  2. 14 Comments so far...

  3. Visit  PICURN74 profile page
    0
    There are two main components to Asthma (hint watch advair commerical) which is the heart of the first questions. The second question is basically asking what an asthmatic patient presents like, what signs or symptoms of an asthma attack would you see. And finally what would you do for an asthmatic, what are your priorities (remember your ABCs). Hope this gives you a little help
  4. Visit  PageRespiratory! profile page
    3
    Here's a question,
    Why don't students want to do their own homework anymore?

    I'm being sarcastic, not nasty!

    Really though, I googled your questions and answered them in about 10 minutes.
    OCNRN63, Esme12, and RN1982 like this.
  5. Visit  XB9S profile page
    0
    thread moved to nursing student assistance forum,

    it may be useful if you give an idea of what information you have and how you feel it answers the question that way the members here can point you in the right direction.
  6. Visit  Daytonite profile page
    2
    i have always told students that nursing has given us one of the greatest tools to help us with our work, but i guess some instructors don't make it clear. i'm talking about the nursing process. the nursing process is a souped up label that was put on the scientific problem solving method after nurses tweaked it a bit and took ownership of it. when the steps of the nursing process are applied to all kinds of nursing dilemmas, care plans and case scenarios included, it is a huge help. the trick is to follow the steps of the process in the sequence that they occur to get the most out of it. these are the steps and what goes on in each of them for care planning a case scenario situations:
    1. assessment (collect data from medical record, do a physical assessment of the patient, assess adl's, look up information about your patient's medical diseases/conditions to learn about the signs and symptoms and pathophysiology)
    2. determination of the patient's problem(s)/nursing diagnosis (make a list of the abnormal assessment data, match your abnormal assessment data to likely nursing diagnoses, decide on the nursing diagnoses to use)
    3. planning (write measurable goals/outcomes and nursing interventions)
    4. implementation (initiate the care plan)
    5. evaluation (determine if goals/outcomes have been met)
    scientific problem solving is not a foreign concept to any of us.
    we have been doing a form of it for much of our lives. let me give you a real world situation a show you how it also ties in with nursing:
    you are driving along and suddenly you hear a bang, you start having trouble controlling your car's direction and it's hard to keep your hands on the steering wheel. you pull over to the side of the road. "what's wrong?" you're thinking. you look over the dashboard and none of the warning lights are blinking. you decide to get out of the car and take a look at the outside of the vehicle. you start walking around it. then, you see it. a huge nail is sticking out of one of the rear tires and the tire is noticeably deflated. what you have just done is step #1 of the nursing process--performed an assessment. you determine that you have a flat tire. you have just done step #2 of the nursing process--made a diagnosis. the little squirrel starts running like crazy in the wheel up in your brain. "what do i do?" you are thinking. you could call aaa. no, you can save the money and do it yourself. you can replace the tire by changing out the flat one with the spare in the trunk. good thing you took that class in how to do simple maintenance and repairs on a car! you have just done step #3 of the nursing process--planning (developed a goal and intervention). you get the jack and spare tire out of the trunk, roll up your sleeves and get to work. you have just done step #4 of the nursing process--implementation of the plan. after the new tire is installed you put the flat one in the trunk along with the jack, dust yourself off, take a long drink of that bottle of water you had with you and prepare to drive off. you begin slowly to test the feel as you drive. good. everything seems fine. the spare tire seems to be ok and off you go and on your way. you have just done step #5 of the nursing process--evaluation (determined if your goal was met).
    you can't even begin to determine what a patient's nursing problems are until you've done a thorough assessment. that, for us nurses, includes
    • a physical assessment of the patient
    • assessment of the patient's ability and any assistance they need to accomplish their adls (activities of daily living) with the disease
    • data collected from the medical record (information in the doctor's history and physical, information in the doctor's progress notes, test result information, notes by ancillary healthcare providers such as physical therapists and dietitians
    • knowing the pathophysiology, signs/symptoms, usual tests ordered, and medical treatment for the medical disease or condition that the patient has. this includes knowing about any medical procedures that have been performed on the patient, their expected consequences during the healing phase, and potential complications. if this information is not known, then you need to research and find it.
    with hypothetical patients you have to tweak that list a bit since you can't do an actual physical exam (but you can put together a text book list of abnormal findings you would expect to see for the medical diagnoses you have been given), you can't do an actual assessment of the patient's ability to perform their adls (but you can extrapolate that information from what you find out about the medical disease symptoms), and there is no medical chart to gather information from. however, one of the major expectations of doing case studies is that students learn about the pathophysiology, signs/symptoms, usual tests ordered, and medical treatment for the medical disease or condition that the patient has. this information is critical (as in critical thinking) in the care planning process, particularly in the determination of nursing diagnoses and their etiological factors. the first two questions from your case study are based in the pathophysiology of asthma. they will also give you the related factor (etiology or cause) for the "r/t" part of the diagnostic statement as well as give you an understanding of how the manifestations of the disease (symptoms) can be directly traced to the pathophysiological happenings. once you learn what the cause and symptoms of asthma are you can then identify priorities and goals of nursing care. your goals will be to improve, stabilize or support the deterioration of each nursing problem you are addressing. nursing care (interventions) of each nursing problem is based upon treating those symptoms. all of this stuff is very rationally interrelated in care planning and fits together like a key fits into a lock.

    explain why impaired gas exchange occurs in asthma ie: identify the pathophysiological processes that occur in asthma and explain how these processes impair gas exchange.
    (from pathophysiology: a 2-in-1 reference for nurses by springhouse, springhouse publishing company staff, pages 244-249)

    "in asthma, hyperresponsiveness of the airways and bronchospasms occur.
    • histamine attaches to receptor sites in larger bronchi, causing swelling of the smooth muscles
    • leukotrienes attach to receptor sites in the smaller bronchi and cause swelling of smooth muscle there. leukotrienes also cause prostaglandins to travel through the bloodstream to the lungs, where they enhance histamine's effects
    • histamine stimulates the mucus membranes to secrete excessive mucus, further narrowing the bronchial lumen. on inhalation, the narrowed bronchial lumen can still expand slightly; however, on exhalation, the increased intrathoracic pressure closes the bronchial lumen completely.
    • mucus fills lung bases, inhibiting alveolar ventilation. blood is shunted to alveoli in other parts of the lungs, but it still cant compensate for diminished ventilation.
    wheeze during coughing occurs. air enters the lung, but can't escape. hyperventilation is triggered by lung receptors to increase lung volume because of trapped air and obstructions. mucus fills the lung bases. intrapleural and alveolar gas pressure rises, causing a decreased perfusion of alveoli. increased alveolar gas pressure, decreased ventilation, and decreased perfusion result in uneven ventilation-perfusion ratios and mismatching [disruption in the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide that are normally exchanged at the alveolar level] within different lung segments.

    hypoxia triggers hyperventilation by respiratory center stimulation, which in turn decreases partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (paco2) and increases ph, resulting in respiratory alkalosis. as the airway obstruction increases in severity, more alveoli are affected. ventilation and perfusion remain inadequate, and carbon dioxide retention develops. respiratory acidosis results, and respiratory failure occurs.

    if status asthmaticus occurs, hypoxia worsens and expiratory flows and volumes decrease even further. if treatment isn't initiated, the patient begins to tire out.

    acidosis develops as paco2 increases. the situation becomes life-threatening as no air becomes audible upon auscultation and paco2 rises to over 70 mmhg."

    here is the pathophysiology of the inflammatory response which you need to know for this case study: http://allnurses.com/forums/f50/hist...ct-244836.html
    why the signs and symptoms occur when gas exchange is impaired
    it is explained in the pathophysiology above. the signs and symptoms of any disease come about as the pathophysiology process continues on untreated.

    the signs and symptoms are:
    • dyspnea [increased alveolar gas pressure, decreased ventilation, and decreased perfusion resulting in uneven ventilation-perfusion ratios and mismatching - for the nursing diagnosis of impaired gas exchange the related factor this is referring to is "ventilation perfusion imbalance".]
    • wheezing [narrowed bronchial lumens]
    • tightness in the chest [the pressure of built up and trapped gasses that can't get out]
    • productive cough of thick clear or yellow sputum [excessive mucus secretion due to release of histamine]
    • tachypnea [lung receptors triggered in an effort to try to increase lung volume due to trapped air and obstructions]
    • rapid pulse [the heart's attempt to deliver more oxygen to the tissues of the body]
    • hyperresonant lung fields [build up of air and co2 that is trapped in the lungs and can't get out]
    • diminished breath sounds [mucus fills many of the alveoli as a result of the inflammation response; because of bronchospasm the patient has difficulty coughing the secretions up and out]
    identify priorities ie: explain what goals of nursing care should be met first and why
    the priority of treatment depends on where the disease process has come to. if the patient is at the stage of acidosis develops as paco2 increases. the situation becomes life-threatening as no air becomes audible upon auscultation and paco2 rises to over 70 mmhg then treatment is going to involve doing something immediately about the zero lung sounds and paco2 of 70--this patient is going to be intubated, an iv started and the acidosis corrected. this is why assessment of the patient is of primary importance in the nursing process.

    in other words, when working on a case scenario, you look at the progressive symptoms and the treatment for them and work backwards to get the order of priority. however, in general you do follow the abcs giving consideration to the order of oxygenation requirements of the various tissues (brain, heart, then lung)
      1. a - establish airway and oxygenate
        • give medications as ordered
          • mast cell stabilizers - halt/slow down the inflammation reaction
          • antihistamines - halt/slow down the inflammation reaction
          • bronchodilators - open the bronchial lumen
        • perform treatments as ordered
        • administer oxygen - maximize % of oxygen perfused during alveolar gas exchange
      2. b - breathing
        • get patient in high fowler's position - reduces pressure on the diaphragm and lung
        • show the patient how to perform pursed lip breathing - lengthened expiratory breathing time helps blow off more co2
        • have equipment ready for emergency intubation and suction - saves time
    why all this information becomes important. . .it helps you understand and define the nursing problem. the definition of impaired gas exchange is excess or deficit in oxygenation and/or carbon dioxide elimination at the alveolar-capillary membrane (page 94, nanda-i nursing diagnoses: definitions & classification 2007-2008). the specific problem with asthma is that oxygen and carbon dioxide are not being exchanged across the alveoli membranes because of (1) oxygenated air being blocked from getting to the alveoli because of bronchospasms, and (2) the build up of excess mucus in the alveoli. what is causing the problem in impaired gas exchange, the nursing diagnosis, is that gas exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide is not being able to occur as it is supposed to in the alveoli. so for asthma, using that particular nursing diagnosis is a marriage made in heaven. of course, there are other nursing diagnoses that apply here as well, but you are focusing on this one.
    • impaired gas exchange related to ventilation perfusion balance as evidenced by dyspnea, diaphoresis, hypercarbia and tachycardia.
    hope i explained that clearly enough and that helps you out. keep this information because it is also relevant for pneumonia and you will have lots of patients with pneumonia! this stuff is not always easy to understand at the first or second reading. you need to get a pathophysiology book to help you with these kinds of assignments. you need to know the pathophysiology of all medical diseases anyway, so it would be a good investment to make.
    missjennmb and ranglervol like this.
  7. Visit  Daytonite profile page
    0
    Also check out this previous thread:
  8. Visit  ranglervol profile page
    0
    im am just starting out at my degree so all of this is very confusing and hard to understand. i can google and answer my questions in about 10 minutes too, however i will not understand it. i am simply asking questions so i can gain better knowlegde as i dont understand
  9. Visit  ranglervol profile page
    0
    also just wanted to say thankyou very much too everyone who has helped me. makes it a lot easier when you put it in way to understand.
  10. Visit  EDS513Tn profile page
    0
    I myself am a first year nursing student who does not ask to be given the answers, but have the answers clarified in a way that I ( a student that has not ever been in contact with such in depth information to cover in such a short amount of time- but who does study so much that I dream of this stuff when I do try to sleep) can understand. I guess some people forgot how it was when they were just beginning and did not understand. I guess some people do not have to work to pay their own bills plus pay for their own school & understand why someone like us that do may need just a little extra Clarification on what certain situations are. I am doing Asthma and came upon this. Sure I can google anything, but it sure would be nice to have someone who has been in our place, that has experience to give us their insight on what in "the real world" works best. Or, we could just go by the text book. I think learning from nurses who have been there done that plus researching the most up to date evidence-based research will make us a better nurse, than just learning text book answers. Im not being nasty. Just honest. Ranglervol, I hope you did well and that you found help from good hearted, understanding people, as I hope I will too.
  11. Visit  nurseprnRN profile page
    0
    stand down, dear. :heartbeat i think what was communicated here in this very old thread was that the op said she had a lot of data but didn't know how to put it together, or couldn't think it out as to how it went together... but she didn't tell us what she knew. this gave the impression that she was fishing around for someone to do it for her, even if it wasn't her original intent (and it very well may not have been). daytonite has died, but her helpful and comprehensive posts live on to help students and others think about how to think like a nurse.

    so what we usually suggest is that the student communicates what s/he knows already, and then tells us what his/her problem is with it, and then we can not only give more data but often a framework for thinking about and solving future related problems.

    so... what do you know already, and what can we help you with?
  12. Visit  Esme12 profile page
    1
    Quote from EDS513Tn
    I myself am a first year nursing student who does not ask to be given the answers, but have the answers clarified in a way that I ( a student that has not ever been in contact with such in depth information to cover in such a short amount of time- but who does study so much that I dream of this stuff when I do try to sleep) can understand. I guess some people forgot how it was when they were just beginning and did not understand. I guess some people do not have to work to pay their own bills plus pay for their own school & understand why someone like us that do may need just a little extra Clarification on what certain situations are. I am doing Asthma and came upon this. Sure I can google anything, but it sure would be nice to have someone who has been in our place, that has experience to give us their insight on what in "the real world" works best. Or, we could just go by the text book. I think learning from nurses who have been there done that plus researching the most up to date evidence-based research will make us a better nurse, than just learning text book answers. I'm not being nasty. Just honest. Wrangler Vol, I hope you did well and that you found help from good hearted, understanding people, as I hope I will too.
    Easy tiger......we help students all the time and I know I will try to lead them to the answer and not give the answer. I Want tot know what they have done for himself first and then give tools for them to be able to answer their questions for themselves in the future.......but this is an old thread and the OP has probably graduated school but I am sure appreciated your support...
    VickyRN likes this.
  13. Visit  EDS513Tn profile page
    0
    I understand your point. Everything I have learned about care plans, I have pretty much had to research myself. I have had students from previous years nice enough to let me see theirs as an example.

    We do get a template however. Our template is 11 pages long to fill out with patient information, thats including 4 care plan pages- on each-(one Nursing DX per those 4 pages), and 5 interventions for each page, with rationales beside each, and source.

    Then (not included in that 11 pages) we have to do 15 drug cards per week. This is on top of Pharmacology class (which the drug cards I know would help-if we had time to stop and study them), and Medsurg, where we also have to do mynursinglab pretests, post tests, remediation (2 chapters due a week) Plus we do two case studies off evolve a week. If we do not have a test in class that week, we have an online quiz. And somehow, we are supposed to read the information in the chapters as well to learn the info.

    I am coping, It is just extremely hard to breathe or sleep when you have 23 hours a day of work to do (I do read and study and try to take in what I am reading before I proceed on) I do not go out or have kids, so I feel for those that have kids. I am just saying I want to be a great nurse, not a half way good nurse, so I feel like any help when I am lost is awesome, and I will help when I can.

    In my Medsurg book, there are two pages over Asthma. Only two diagnoses, one being 'Pain" that we are not allowed to use. We cannot use any 'risks fors' or knowledge deficit.

    I now, am down to my last two care plan sheets for Activity Intolerance R/T Allergans and Ineffective Coping R/T use of alcohol to cope with Resp. Dz. (Red wine is a trigger, so I made up my patient drinking 1-2 glasses a day)-We do not get a real patient this semester to make a care plan. We are provided with information, and we make up the rest. Sounds great, well not so easy.

    My number 1 is Ineffective Airway Clearance R/T Tracheobronchial Narrowing, and number 2 is Impaired Ventilation. I took my respiratory test already this week, my knowledge deficits are in Hypotonic Dehydration and Isotonic Dehydration.

    No matter what I look up I do not get clarification for the questions asked on the test that I know I missed. I know my ABCs, but I thought Decreased Cardiac Output would be priority over "RISK for Impaired Ventilation." for a patient with Fluid Volume Excess. I was wrong. Still confused on that.

    We are going into cardio this week and I am freaking out. I already watched two youtube videoes, but when I am done with this care plan of a million pages, I will get to start reading my chapters.
    Last edit by tnbutterfly on Feb 7, '12 : Reason: Reformatting post
  14. Visit  nurseprnRN profile page
    0
    you are off to a really good start. truly. stay in touch!

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