Endocrine System & Blood Questions?

  1. Hello! I am doing some homework for ADV Anatomy and Physiology and was wondering if I can get some second opinions to some of my "not sure" answers. I have a 7 pages assignment and I have only a few that I ain't really sure about and it's killing me not knowing. Any help is super appreciated.

    1) Because insulin lowers blood sugar levels it is said to be _______while glucagon would be ______because it raises blood glucose levels.

    ----Would this be like hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia?---

    2) Inflammation is reduced by the effect of the hormone ________?

    -----Cortisol and Histamine both came to mind------

    3) Cortisol limits the inflammatory process by ____white blood cells. Thus this hormone is _____and it inhibits the immune responses?

    -----Increasing white blood cells? And not sure of the second one-----

    4) Mrs smith is O+ and Mr. Smith is O-. Her developing fetus is O+. Is there any need for concern with combination?

    ----No, because the fetus and mother is both +??? I know that if one is positive and the other is negative it can both result in bad things, or am I thinking RH?

    5) What if Mrs. Smith was O-?
    -----The baby could result in a stillborn----

    6) The biconcave disk shape of the RBCs provide greater ______for better diffusion of gases and ____for squeezing through small capillaries.

    ------Surface area and nutrients?-----

    7) Under normal circumstance plasma of (Which Rh blood type) contains Rh antibodies?

    -----RH+------??

    8) ______binds to fetal Rh antigens within the mother so the mother's immune system doesn't detect the antigens and thus no antibodies are made that would attack the fetal bond.

    -----RHOgam?-----

    9) Blood typing is checking for the presence of _____in the blood?

    ----Antigens?----

    10) ______is the attraction of phagocytes to chemicals produced by invading microbes or inflamed tissue. This is primary attraction of phagocytes to the injured tissues.

    -----Histamine or inflammation?-----

    11) Glucose in the urine takes _______with it and dilutes the body fluids which the hypothalamus detects as concentrated blood and creates the sensation of thirst?

    ------Sugar or sodium? I really don't know haha....----
    Last edit by CedarGirl10 on Mar 27
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  2. 10 Comments

  3. by   ItsThatJenGirl
    My disclaimer - I'm a pre-nursing student, and I'm giving you my opinion on the answers. My opinion is in bold.

    1) Because insulin lowers blood sugar levels it is said to be _______while glucagon would be ______because it raises blood glucose levels.

    ----Would this be like hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia?---

    I don't think so. My first thought was feedback loops.

    2) Inflammation is reduced by the effect of the hormone ________?

    -----Cortisol and Histamine both came to mind------

    Cortisol would be my response

    3) Cortisol limits the inflammatory process by ____white blood cells. Thus this hormone is _____and it inhibits the immune responses?

    -----Increasing white blood cells? And not sure of the second one-----

    Well, no - cortisol does the opposite, which is how it's an anti-inflammatory.

    4) Mrs smith is O+ and Mr. Smith is O-. Her developing fetus is O+. Is there any need for concern with combination?

    ----No, because the fetus and mother is both +??? I know that if one is positive and the other is negative it can both result in bad things, or am I thinking RH?

    I'm not super educated on this topic, but I'm pretty sure the =/- IS the Rh factor. As long as the mom and baby have the same Rh factor, it should be fine. There is a 25% chance that baby could be O-

    5) What if Mrs. Smith was O-?
    -----The baby could result in a stillborn----

    If Mrs. Smith was O-, there's no way the baby could be O+

    6) The biconcave disk shape of the RBCs provide greater ______for better diffusion of gases and ____for squeezing through small capillaries.

    ------Surface area and nutrients?-----

    Yes, surface area. It's not nutrients, as that doesn't make sense in the context given. Because of their shape, they are more flexible

    7) Under normal circumstance plasma of (Which Rh blood type) contains Rh antibodies?

    -----RH+------??

    Yes - if antigens are present, it's positive

    8) ______binds to fetal Rh antigens within the mother so the mother's immune system doesn't detect the antigens and thus no antibodies are made that would attack the fetal bond.

    -----RHOgam?-----

    I think so

    9) Blood typing is checking for the presence of _____in the blood?

    ----Antigens?----

    I think so

    10) ______is the attraction of phagocytes to chemicals produced by invading microbes or inflamed tissue. This is primary attraction of phagocytes to the injured tissues.

    -----Histamine or inflammation?-----

    This is as far as I got. I'll answer the rest when I can

    11) Glucose in the urine takes _______with it and dilutes the body fluids which the hypothalamus detects as concentrated blood and creates the sensation of thirst?

    ------Sugar or sodium? I really don't know haha....
  4. by   Simplistic
    You give Rhogam at 28 weeks to a pregnant women if the mother is RH-. If you DONT give it during the first pregnancy, NOTHING will happen. However, the 2nd, 3rd etc pregnancies will be in danger. Just want to clarify that.
  5. by   nalie2
    4. You're right about both being positive so there is no issue.
    5. If Mrs. Smith was O- with O+ baby she would need RhoGAM if it was her second pregnancy. From what I remember, O- mom can have a + baby. It would be inherited from a + dad.
    Last edit by nalie2 on Mar 27 : Reason: typo
  6. by   Simplistic
    Quote from nataliekorn
    4. You're right about both being positive so there is no issue.
    5. If Mrs. Smith was O- with O+ baby she would need RhoGAM if it was her second pregnancy. From what I remember, O- mom can have a + baby. It would be inherited from a + dad.
    You would actually give rhogam during the first pregnancy.
  7. by   CedarGirl10
    UPDATE: Would number 10 be chemotaxis? Not phagocytosis....
    Would number 11 be something to do with the ADH hormone?
    Last edit by CedarGirl10 on Mar 28
  8. by   Esme12
    I have to step in.....the only time it matters is if the MOM is Rh neg. Which means her blood doesn't have positive antigens. When the blood of the Rh positive baby mixes with the Mom's blood the Mom will develop antibodies to attack the Rh pos antibodies. It is the second baby that it will affect because the Mom now has antibodies against the Rh pos antigens and the Moms blood attacks the babies blood so...these babies are born with jaundice or they are blue and require an immediate blood transfusion.

    The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy - ACOG
  9. by   Dodongo
    Quote from CedarGirl10
    UPDATE: Would number 10 be chemotaxis? Not phagocytosis....
    Would number 11 be something to do with the ADH hormone?
    I would say chemoattraction as that's the first step in diapedesis, followed by adhesion, transmigration and chemotaxis.

    When glucose is in the urine it creates a hyperosmolar concentration gradient that pulls H2O with it. So the plasma becomes more concentrated.

    The other questions were answered appropriately by others. ACTH and the adrenocortical hormones are anti inflammatory. They suppress the release of pro-inflammatory mediators (TNFa, IL1, etc) and in so doing they inhibit T and B cell mediated immune responses.

    Rhogam is given to an Rh- mother who is pregnant with a Rh+ fetus, once at 28 weeks and at delivery. And must be given with every Rh+ fetus. If it is not given you risk the infant experiencing hemolytic disease of the newborn. The mother will be fine.

    The main point to remember when thinking about the appropriate blood type to transfuse is that you're most worried about antigens on the surface of the DONOR red cells. The concern is that the patient receiving the transfusion will have antibodies against the donor red cells and then those donor cells will be lysed by an immune response and negative consequences ensue.
  10. by   jess.mont
    I'll give a hint about question 1 - think about what glucagon and insulin do. We had to list three processes for each; glucagon breaks down glycogen, breaks down triglycerides, and breaks down proteins. Insulin does the opposite; it builds up glycogen, builds up triglycerides, and builds up proteins. When we have a substance (in this case, a hormone) or process that builds up, it's called an ... hormone. (Think about steroids, if you're stuck.) Something that breaks down is called a ... hormone.
  11. by   CedarGirl10
    Is it a steroid and nonsteroid hormone?
  12. by   saraleigh
    I'll play... Anabolic and Catabolic.

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