At this point in time I don't think there are many newly-emigrated Filipinos who have elected to move to Quebec. The interest is, of course, increasing as the rest of Canada becomes saturated, which is reflected in the number of inquiries being posted here by Filipino nurses. It's pretty hard to answer your question about the likelihood of needing to do more than the 5-month transitional training since it will very much depend on the Organisation des Infirmieres et Infermiers du Quebec's (OIIQ) assessment of your education and experience.
There are federal regulations that determine how much money an immigrant must have upon arrival. For example, if you come here by yourself, you will be required to provide proof that you have immediate access to $11,115. This requirement is waived for thsoe arriving to begin arranged employment - that is, if you've already been recruited by a Canadian employer with a guarantee of work and income. This does not appear to apply to you.
Most immigrants to Quebec prefer Montreal, much in the same way they prefer Toronto when moving to Ontario, Vancouver when moving to BC and Calgary when moving to Alberta. DOn't assume that because it's Montreal that everyone will speak English; this is very much NOT the case and in many situations, you'll be treated badly. Speaking from experience here. There are hospitals and nursing homes where English is spoken, but they tend to be reasonably well-staffed already. Be prepared for a lot of hard work in finding a job.
The French language exam is difficult. You'll be tested on highly technical language and terminology, since we in the health care world do have our own complex vocabulary. I've lived in Quebec, have passable skills and am married to a Francophone, and I couldn't pass the exam.
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