I empathize with your frustration. I've been a CNA for about a year and am a nursing student. I think that it is important not to interrupt nurses during report, BUT, from what I read, you told her of the problem prior to shift change an report time. I don't think you back-talked the nurse. I also DON'T THINK it's solely *your* job to put a patient to bed.
Nurses are busy and have responsibilities in addition to direct patient care, but that does not, in my opinion, mean that it's solely your job, as a CNA to put the patient to bed! It makes me mad that the nurse said that, after s/he refused to do her job in a timely manner.
Option 1: I know that some CNA's change colostomy bags and do other things that nurses typically do when staffing is limited. Not sure if this is legal, but I know some CNA's who claim to have been trainined on how to do this.
Option 2: Don't "talk back" to the nurse, just make your own documentation notes (for personal use, not for charting) that at XX time, you notified nurse, that at XX time you told her again, at XX time, you were off, and at XX time, the nurse told you you had to stay after work to put the aptient to bed AFTER you waited an hour for them to change colostomy bad
Option 3: Cover your own arse by putting patient to bed, as nurse said, and leaving the "mess" for someone else to clean up. This also will require personal documentation because you might get in trouble the next day for leaving the patient in a mess.
However, I see nothing wrong with the approach you used because it's okay to speak up regarding patient care issues and I admire your forthrightness!