So much of what you are experiencing really depends on the state, the facilities, the school, and your instructor.
As an adult learner, you, like most just want to know the what and why, and when one feels like it makes sense then no questions asked, but if the response does not make sense you need to ask more questions. Nothing wrong with that. Some instructors do not know how to teach older adult learners, and some are great.
I am a Director of a PN program, and my students get most of their skills checked off in their first semester. In our state they are assigned to nurses on the units, once they have been signed off in the clinical setting they are able to work with their nurse. Starting IV's etc.
When I was in school in Tx. my instructor had to be with me for any invasive procedure. So each state is a little different. Know your states rules and regs.
If I have students at a facility that does not have enough patients I try to find other sites, but in deed they are limited.
As an adult student, take the opportunity to listen, do rounds with the nurses when the doctors are on the floor, ask questions, review charts, medications, labs. I tell my students that there is always something to do. If the patient population is low, my clinical instructors may decide to have longer post conferences with the students, do NCLEX questions, discuss scenarios, review questions that students have about tests they have taken.
It sounds to me that your school has either limited the autonomy of the CI or your CI has limited herself.
I think you should request a meeting with your director. But before you meet, have questions written down and offer suggestions for the problems. Do not go in with complaints and no resolutions. Most want to hear students opinions for improvement of programs. They may not be able to change during your time do to state board and HLC constraints. Also, when you are given your end of semester surveys fill them out honestly and give constructive criticism, the school and state board looks closely at these for accreditation.