I think, first and foremost, you HAVE to set aside some time to spend with your dog when you are home. When you get home from clinical, play ball or something with your dog for an hour or so. On your days off from clinical, take your dog for walks. It's doable. If people can take care of their human children, I don't think it's impossible to take care of a dog :)
As far as the "potty" issue, have you tried potty pads? They're basically like chux for dogs. That way your dog doesn't have to wear a wet diaper all day, and you don't have to worry about your personal belongings getting urinated on. Some people (and stay with me here) also train their dogs to use a litter box while in the house. I think either way you go, you will have some training to do, and there will almost definitely be an adjustment period, but you just have to stay on top of it and I think it will pan out. If push comes to shove, do you have someone who could stop by your apartment to let the dog out when you have clinical? Family? Friend? Neighbor? Hire a dog walker to do it?
Will you cage your dog when you leave, or will he get to run around the house? If you cage him, consider getting a large collapsable cage. They are about 5 feet long, by 4 feet wide, and probably about 3 feet tall. Even if you just use it on clinical days, it folds down small enough to slide under your bed (and it takes
Then of course the basics - food, water, toys, source of natural light (open blinds), a nightlight/lamp on a timer if you're going to be gone past dark. You can turn on the radio to a talk show station so your dog can hear human voices throughout the day (this supposedly reduces separation anxiety, but I haven't actually seen/read any actual literature on it, so I'm not sure).
Hopefully these tips help. They're just a combination of things used by a few nurses I know.