First, I would clarify with the professors as well as the director of the program in terms of accommodation. If they can't accommodate you during clinicals, then of course you would have to wait until graduation. I wouldn't expect them to accommodate you for your surgery and healing process.
Now IF they can accommodate you and your entire recovery process, I personally still would wait until after graduation. You still have to finish this 2nd semester and you have another year to go after that, why bother risking your seat? You have to assume the surgery goes well. Then you have to assume that you recover with no complications. You have to assume physical therapy to get you back on your feet quickly/on time. You have to assume personal life, business life, and educational life doesn't get in your way the next 1.5 years. There's a lot of assumptions that things will go according to plan. Not only that, you will be pushing your body to the limits by continuing with school work and clinicals when it should be resting/recovering.
On the other hand, if this scoliosis is impairing you from performing RN skills during clinical and/or the progression of the scoliosis is expected to worsen over the next year, then surgery may be warranted. This is a serious discussing between your PCP, surgeon, and your program director.
Lastly, jobs will always be there. You have the CNA experience, I think you already are a step ahead in terms of employment. If you work at a hospital, then you are way ahead of the employment game. There's no point in worrying about jobs if you haven't finished nursing school and passed your boards. There's also no point in getting a job if you can't physically perform the job duties due to injury. Recover and heal first. Back surgery isn't something to think light of and shouldn't assume you will be "back on your feet in no time."