I think we just went through this topic a few days ago.
The main thing is to know what type of stoma and procedure your patient has before a trach falls out.
It could be a permanent stoma with the trachea externalized with no communication with the upper airway. For this one you will have to be mindful of grafts, internal prosthetic speaking valves and fistulas. Either way you should know when the tracheotomy or tracheostomy was done and you should have the appropriate equipment
(BVM with appropriate size mask, spare trachs) at bedside which may even include tracheal ring grappers or pullers and stoma spreaders.
With the many different airways and surgeries for necks and trachs, it is difficult to say one method fits all.
I've got a little "I Spy" game for those who love people watching. See how many different airways you can spot in a crowd. If you hear a synthesized voice, which may not even be that obvious now, see if you can spot the synthesizer and the stoma. Also, if you see someone with a plastic tubing that looks like it could belong to a nasal cannula but the person isn't wearing one, see if you can follow to where it is connected. I've also struck up conversations to see what make and model their oxygen tank is especially if it is fitting into something like a very small hand bag.
Many EMS and ED workers have been fooled by missing a permanent stoma that is well hidden by a flesh colored covering or a shirt.
For a "fun" cruise or outting, volunteer to join a Better Breathers club. Or, crash their Christmas party which is usually hosted by the RT department along with a home care company. If you are not that experienced, make sure there is another RN or RRT accompanying you.