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What causes a person with fluid volume deficit to have hyperthermia?
What causes a person with fluid volume deficit to have nausea and vomiting?
Fluid deficit does not directly cause hyperthermia....however hyperthermia can cause a fluid deficit and is a common finding in a patient with dehydration/fluid deficit. To correct fluid deficits, giving fluids is not enough...... you need to also treat the underlying cause....in order to treat the volume deficit.
Physiological Dehydration Signs and Symptoms
- Recent rapid weight loss
- Dry eyes and/or mouth
- Change in mental status
- Postural hypotension
- Small amount of concentrated urine
- Urinary tract infections
- Pulse >100 beats/minute and/or systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg
Determination of the cause of dehydration is essential. Poor fluid intake, excessive fluid output, increased insensible fluid losses, or a combination of the above may cause intravascular volume depletion. Successful treatment requires identification of the underlying disease state.
Conditions and Factors That May Increase Risk for Dehydration or Fluid/Electrolyte Imbalance
Dehydration Clinical Presentation
- Dementia or cognitive impairment
- Fever (including low-grade fever)
- Dependence on staff for eating and drinking
- Use of medications that can cause dehydration (e.g., diuretics, phenytoin, lithium, laxatives)
- Draining wounds or pressure ulcers
- Excessive sweating
- Rapid breathing
- Gastrointestinal bleeding
- Previous episodes of dehydration
- Difficult or painful swallowing
- Small amount of dark or concentrated urine
- Excessive urination
- Nothing-by-mouth or fluid-restriction orders
- Chronic comorbidities (e.g. stroke, diabetes, congestive heart failure)
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- Common causes
- Gastroenteritis: This is the most common cause of dehydration. If both vomiting and diarrhea are present, dehydration may rapidly progress.[7, 8]
- Stomatitis: Pain may severely limit oral intake.
- Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA): Dehydration is caused by osmotic diuresis. Weight loss is caused by both excessive fluid losses and tissue catabolism. Rapid rehydration, especially rapid initial volume resuscitation, may be associated with a poor neurologic outcome. DKA requires very specific and controlled treatment (see Diabetic Ketoacidosis).
- Febrile illness: Fever causes increased insensible fluid losses and may affect appetite.
- Pharyngitis: This may decrease oral intake.
- Life-threatening causes
- Burns: Fluid losses may be extreme. Very aggressive fluid management is required (see Burns, Thermal).
- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: This may have associated hypoglycemia, hypotension, hyperkalemia, and hyponatremia.
- GI obstruction: This is often associated with poor intake and emesis. Bowel ischemia can result in extensive capillary leak and shock.
- Heat stroke: Hyperpyrexia, dry skin, and mental status changes may occur.
- Cystic fibrosis: This results in excessive sodium and chloride losses in sweat, placing patients at risk for severe hyponatremic hypochloremic dehydration.
- Diabetes insipidus: Excessive output of very dilute urine can result in large free water losses and severe hypernatremic dehydration.
What NCLEX review question/s made you not understand fluid volume deficit with hyperthermia and nausea and vomiting......I need a place to start