Chicken pox/ varicella
Herpes zoster/ shingles
Private room, negative pressure, 6-12 air exhanges per hour with HEPA filter, respiratory protection device N95. Talk minimum, wet mask doesn’t protect.
Respiratory suncytial virus
Private room or cohort client, mask or respirator required
Hep A if pooping
Private room or cohort clients, gloves, gowns
Private room , positive pressure with 12 or more air exchanges per hour, HEPA filtration, respirator mask gloves and gowns
Don’t delegate what you can EAT (Evaluate, asses, teach)
PVD- Remember DAVE- Dependent Arterial, Venous Elevated
1 gram of diaper weight= 1mL of fluid
Multiply weight in kilograms by 30 to get the amount of fluid people need daily
BMI: 18.5-25 is normal
Sterile procedure- open away from body first
Surgical asepsis- scrub nails 15 strokes and fingers with 10 strokes per side. Rinse from finger to elbow
Wash hands and rinse for 15 seconds in warm water
Koplik spots- small red spots with blue center. Measles.
Anthrax- tx with abx x 60 days
Mag Sulfate- monitor UO, don’t give 2hr before delivery
Postpartum- Temp elevated x24hrs, HR decreased x1 wk
Forceps- can lead to hematoma
BPP- checks breathing, body movements, fetal tone, reactive FHR, Amniotic fluid volume
Amniocentesis- Check for fetal anomalies (down syndrome, Trisomy 13&18), Fetal maturity and LS ration to assess fetal lung
maturity. Give rhogam if pt Rh negative
Chorionic Villi Sampling- check for fetal anomalies and genetic defects can be done at 18wks
Maternal Alphafetoprotein Samplin- Low levels= Down Syndrome, High= Neural tube defects. Done at 16-28 weeks gestation
Contractions should be 2-3min apart for 60 sec. If < 2-3 min and >90 sec d/c PIT call dr.
Birth weight doubles by 6 months and triples by 1 year
Physiological jaundice- ok noted after 25hrs, peaks on day 5
Pathological jaundice- bad- noted before 24hrs after birth
Hyperbilirubenia: = is a level >12mg/dL
Neonate FBS levels: 40-60 first 24hr, then 50-90 after 25hrs.
NL UO for infant- 1-2ml/kg/hr
Acute infectious diarrhea (infectious gastroenteritis)- is a result of various bacterial, viral, and/or parasitic infections. The onset of gastroenteritis is often abrupt with rapid loss of fluids and electrolytes from persistent vomiting and diarrhea
Infant born with RDS at r/f pneumothorax, give Exosurf (surfactant) to prevent
Reyes syndrome- acute encephalopathy- Dx with liver bx. Linked to aspirin in children.
Spinal bifida- neural tubes didn’t close. No diapers, prone position
Bacterial meningitis- cloudy CSF with increased protein and decreased glucose.
Goodells sign- softening of cervix
Chadwicks- purpleish color of vagina
Fetal HR PMI- breech: above BB midline. Cephalic and Face presentation: lt or rt side of uterus below BB. Transverse: below
BB midline. Vertex near symphysis pubis
Saturate 1 pad per hour= hemorrhage
Epiglottitis- secondary to flu or strep. Abrupt onset. Medical emergency. Kid drools. Tripod position. Put Nothing in mouth. Give cool moist oxygen
Laryngotracheobronchitis- RSV. gradual onset, cool vaporizer.
Cystic fibrosis- resp failure. Deficient in Vit A,D,E,K. give lots of calories and protein
Rheumatic fever- preceded by strep
Status epilipticus- child may need intubation
Scoliosis- gradual curvature change of the vertebrae that may go unnoticed by parents.
CPT- in children should be done 1hr before meals. Give albuterol before doing it.
Rubella virus- can cause cleft lip
Cleft lip- suction stuff at bedside. Elbow restraints post op
Transesophageal fistula- 3 c’s: chocking, coughing, cyanosis. Frothy saliva. R/f ASPIRATION. NPO. IV fluid
Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis- visible peristalsis. Projectile vomiting. Olive mass on right side.
Celiac disease- give iron, folic acid, vit ADEK
Appendicitis- pain in RLQ. Perforated= relief of pain then more pain. NO HEAT! Can rupture
Appendectomy- post op- no pain meds or heat and no enema or laxative. Apply ice only. Lay on R side. NPO until BS return
Hirschprung aka megacolon- watery explosive diarrhea. Ribbony stools. No meconium. Give low fiber.
Chrons- no bleeding. Pt needs diet high in protein and calories and low in fiber
DKA- rehydration with NS!
Glomerolunephritis- STREP! Cloudy, smoky, brown urine.
Nephrotic- massive proteinuria. Don’t give salt.
Sickle cell anemia- NO DEMEROL! Give morphine or dilaudid. Treat crisis with O2, hydration, pain med and rest
Aplastic anemia- bone marrow not making WBC’s, platelets, and/or RBC’s. s/s: hypoxia, fatigue, pallor, increased infection, hemorrhage, ecchymosis, petechiae, Pancytopenia. Give immunosuppressive (prednisone and cyclosporine, or Cytoxan) and bone marrow transplant. Protective isolation.
Pernicious anemia- Vit B12 deficiency. Diagnosed through a Schillings test, measures UO of Vit B12. Will get Vit B12 shot once a a week for 1 month then monthly for life.
Hemophilia- give factor VIII
Hodgkins disease- reed strenberg cells. Painless node near clavicle first sign.
Wilms tumor- measure abdominal girth daily. No palpation
Spider bite- ice
Snake- no ice. Level below heart. No movement of extremity
Burns- low Na and High K occurs. S/S shock. Fast HR low BP and Low CO. Hct high initially. Will gain 20lbs the first 3 days. Antacids daily. Wt qd. Use sterile sheets
Cellulitis- warm compresses
Brachytherapy- pt emits radiation to others
Cancer- high temp is always serious!!
Mastectomy- pt should wear gloves on the affected side .
Multiple myeloma- abn plasma invades bone marrow. Produce abnormal antibody called bence jones protein. High uric acid and Ca lead to renal failure. Get osteoporosis. Give fluids. Move carefuly.
Tumor lysis syndrome- tumor cells destroyed and uric acid and K leak into blood. Give IV fluids and diuretics. Give allopurinol.
Give insulin and glucose to treat hyperkalemia. Emergency! Leads to electrolyte imbalance and renal failure!
Aldosterone- always think Sodium and Water
ADH- think water only
Adrenocorticotropin Hormones (ACTH) and cortisol= same thing. Hormones of adrenal cortex.
Addisons- too little Aldosterone, pt has low sugar and Na with high K and Ca. Aldosterone makes you retain Na and Water but they don’t have any so they’re loosing Na and H2O… fatigue, muscle pain, weakness, joint pain, chronic diarrhea, N&V, diminished libido, hyperpigmentation, low BP, Pt is fluid volume deficient. At risk for anemia need lifelong glucocorticoids(Florinef). High protein & carb.
Addisonian crisis-severe hypotension and vascular collapse. Sudden extreme weakness, severe abd, back, & leg pain, hyperpyrexia, coma, death. Secondary to infection, trauma, surgery, stress, PG. goal is to prevent irreversible shock and severe hypotension. May require IV steroids and respiratory support.
Cushings- too much aldosterone. pt has high sugar and Na with low K and Ca. Pt has HTN, upper body obesity, thin extremities, moon face, buffalo hump, neck fat, hirsutism, ammenorhae, high triglycerides, Fragile skin with purple striae, bruise easily osteoporosis. Meds: parlodel, Lysodren, Cytadren. High protein, low carb. Put in quiet environment.
Hyperpititurism- too much GH.aka- acromegaly. Pt has lg hands, feet, deep voice. Oily skin. Need transphenoidal hyposphectomy. Meds: sandostatin, somavert, or permax. Lower GH.
Transphenoidal Hyphospectomy- removal of pituitary tumor. Check for SIADH post op
Diabetes Insipidus-fluid volume deficit on vassopresors for life. Cant concentrate urine. have very concentrated blood.
SIADH- s/s fluid over load. They have Low Na. give hypertonic solution. Have concentrated urine & Diluted blood. Restrict fluids. Seizure precautions. Sodium infusions, loop or osmotic diuretics. Meds: vasopressin receptor antagonist:s IF NA <125 - conivaptan, Tolvaptan.
Hyperaldosteronism aka CONNS- too much aldosterone. Pt has Low K and high Na. give Aldactone and Inspra.
Parathyroids- secrete PTH which pulls calcium from bones to put it in the blood.
Hypoparathyroidism- low calcium and high phosphorus. s/s parasthesia, muscle cramps, alopecia, dry brittle hair and nails,
chovsteks, trosseaus painful menstruation. Keep in quiet environment. Give IV calcium gluconate. Or oral calcium salt s and vitamin D
Hyperparathyroidism- high calcium and low phosphorus. Kidney stones and hyperuricemia, osteoporosis, polyuria, polydipsia, HTN. Force fluids, prevent constipation, strain urine. Give Plicamycin or calcitonin, give Lasix
Hypothyroidism- low T3 and T4 high TSH can lead to Myxedema coma-can occur due to rapid withdrawal of thyroid meds (synthroid, proloid, cytomel). Pt has low BP, sugar, Na, HR. Leads to coma and resp failure
Hyperthyroidism- high T3&T4- thyroid hormones gives us energy, pt has too much energy. (Graves disease)- the clinical manifestations are known as thyrotoxicosis. Give PTU, Propacil, Tapazole to stop making TH’s. Give Inderal . Pt irritable with soft skin and hair, keep in quiet environment.
Thyroid storm- life threatening. s/s hyperpyrexia, tachycardia, systolic hypertension. Give PTU, beta blockers. SSKI before surgery to prevent this from happening.
Thyroidectomy- need lifetime levothyroxine and calcium. Keep trach tray, suction and O2 and IV calcium gluconate at bed side.
Thalassemia- pt has low Hgb. Give blood transfusion. Pt is green/yellow. Has wide set eyes. Big forehead
Polycythemia vera- too many RBC’s. thick blood. r/f stroke. Give fluids
Regular insulin- is the only insulin that can be give IV.
DKA- BS >300. Give IV regular insulin. Start with a bolus first then a drip. Watch K, it will drop.
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketoic syndrome- BS>800. NS alone may treat it.
Pheocromocytoma- benign tumor of adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla produces cathecolamines epi and norepi, with this tumor pt is producing too much which leads to- HTN!. Do 24hr urine to dx called Vanylmandelic Test, no coffee or exercise before test. Don’t palpate tumor/abdomen. Quiet environment.
Esophageal varices- due to portal HTN. Can kill if ruptured.
Pancreatitis- NPO. Put in lying knee-chest position.
Ulcerative colitis- Vit K deficient. No milk, fiber or fruits. Patient bleeds.
Diverticulitis- give low fiber
Evisceration- put in semi fowlers position with knees bent, cover with NS gauze, call dr stat!
Dumping syndrome- early signs sweaty and pallor. Avoid sugar, salt, milk. Eat protein and fat & low carb.
Hepatic encephalopathy- eat low protein. And high cal and carb.
Barium swallow dye- causes bowel obstruction. Give lax and fluid. Chalky poop.
Gastric lavage- patient put on left side
NG insertion- pt put on high fowlers position
NG decompression or feedings- Semi fowlers position
Paracentisis- pt voids before procedure, don’t want to puncture bladder.
Liver bx- put on left side during. check PT, PTT and platelets before bx. Post put on right side.
Cirrhosis- limit exercise. Limit sodium intake
Nonrebreather- gives highest concentration of O2. For pt needing ventilation.
Venturi mask- most precise
PEEP- greater than 15 can cause barotrauma or tension pneumothorax
Mechanical ventilator- pt at risk for infection esp pneumonia
ARDS- fluid in alveoli. Cardinal sign is HYPOXEMIA. treat the cause. restrict fluids. Give O2 and diuretics
Patient have Severe hypoxemia despite administration of 100% oxygen A systemic inflammatory response injures the alveolar-capillary membrane. It becomes permeable to large molecules, and the lung space is filled with fluid. A reduction in surfactant weakens the alveoli, which causes collapse or filling of fluid leading to worsening edema.
COPD- ABG’s show respiratory acidosis. Max O2 is 2l/min. give high cal and protein and lots of fluid.
Sever acute resp syndrome- caused by coronavirus. Contagious.
Air Embolism- treat with IV heparin
Fat embolism- early symptom: confusion. Late: petechiae over neck, upper body, chest and abdomen. treat with heparin
Compartment- 6P’s pain, pressure, paralysis, pallor, pulselessnes, paresthesia. Meds don’t help.
TB- treatment for 2-3wk then no longer contagious.
Isoniazid INH- not given to pt with liver problems
Rubeola/measles- 3C’s coryza, cough, conjunctivitis. Small red spots with blue center. Airborne pct.
Rubella /German measles- keep away from PG women. Airborne precautions
Mumps- parotid glandular swelling. Droplet/contact pct
Diptheria- bullneck-lymphadenitis. Humidified oxygen.
Mononucleosis- monitor for splenic rupture
CVP: normal 5-10= pressure in right atrium. High CVP= hypervolemia low CVP= hypovolemia. To measure pt needs to be supine on high fowlers. You can measure CVP on patients that are receiving bolus fluids to ensure you’re not over loading them with fluid.
PAWP- NL 4-12. Measure right atrial pressure. Elevations may indicate left ventricular failure or mitral regurgitation, intracardial shunt, or hypervolemia. Decreased means hypovolemia.
MAP- must be at least 60 for adequate organ perfusion.- SBP+2DBP/3
Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure: NL 6-12. measured when balloon inflates. Indicates Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. High means hypervolemia or left ventricular failure and low means hypovolemia.
Sinus bradycardia- give atropine if it doesn’t work transcutaneous pacemaker. Don’t give too much atropine because pt will get tachycardia
Sinus tachycardia- HR 100-180 rhythm normal. Eliminate cause.
CD4/T4- normal levels 800-1200. 500 ok in HIV patients. <500 is bad. <200 = AIDS.
P wave- 0.06-0.12
PR interval- 0.12-0.20
QRS interval- <0.12
ST segment- 0.12
T wave- 0.16
QT interval- 0.34-0.44
CO- think left ventricle.
CABG- post op restrict fluids to 1500-2000/d.
Coarctation of aorta- BP higher in UE than LE. Cool LE
Hypercianotic spells- put in knee chest. Give 100 O2, give morphine sulfate and IV fluids. In calm place.
PVC- due to caffeine, stress or low O2 (hypoxemia) or low K. giveO2, Lidocaine , monitor potassium.Untreated PVC’scan lead to VFib
V Tach- HR 140-250, decreased CO. can lead to cardiac arrest. Tx: if pt has pulse and no s/s of decreased CO: give O2. If pt has pulse and s/s of decreased CO give O2 and prepare for cardioversion, ask patient to cough hard every 1-3 seconds for cough CPR. If patient has No pulse: defibrillate and CPR. Give Amiodarone or Lido
V Fib- is fatal if not treated within 3-5 minutes, pt has no pulse, BP, heart sound or respirations. O2, CPR and defibrillation
A fib- disorganized impulses at 350-600bpm. can lead thrombi formation causing stroke or heart failure. No P wave visible. QRS is visible. Tx : Oxygen, Cardioversion, beta blocker, digoxin and warfarin
MI- ECG shows ST elevation and T wave inversion. Permanent abnormal Q wave.
Right ventricular failure- avoid St Johns Worth and Licorice
Cardioversion- pt on heparin 4-6 wks pre. Synchronized to R wave.
Defibrillating- turn of O2 first!
Asynchronous/fixed pacemaker- for asystole or severely bradycardic pts.
Left ventricular failure- leads to pulmonary failure- emergency!
Cardiogenic shock- failure of the heart to pump adequately. Pts BP will be lower than 90 systolic and UO <30. Tachy, cold clammy skin, poor peripheral pulses. Give Dobutamine, morphine, diuretics, nitrates. SWAN Gans insertion. Reading will show increased pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and decreased CO. maintain transducer at level of right atrium.
SWAN Ganz- complications: air emboli or pulmonary infarction
Systemic Intra-Arterial Line- measures BP continuously.
Hypovolemic shock- decreased circulating blood volume
Distributive- vasogenic shock. ( Neurogenic, Anaphylactic, septic)
Septic shock- systemic vasodilation due to infection. Initially warm, flushed skin and fever.
Anaphylactic- hypersensitivity reaction
Neurogenic- increased size of vascular bed due to loss of vascular tone
Shock manifestations: are due to decreased tissue perfusion. Tachycardia with hypotension. Tachypnea, Oliguria, Cold moist skin, color ashen and pallor, metabolic acidosis, decreased LOC. Position in modified trandelenburgs, large IV 16-18 gauge, O2, VS q5min, monitor UO
Chronic constrictive pericarditis- give abx, diuretics and digoxin
Cardiac tamponade- pt has JVD and clear lungs
Prosthetic valve- lifetime anticoagulants
Thrombophlebitis- elevate extremity above level of heart
Venous insufficiency- elevate. Clean wounds wit NS NOT betadine or hydrogen peroxide, destroys tissue
Buergers disease- inflammation of veins/arteries causes vasoconstriction. extremity red and cold when in dependent position. Tx: stop smoking, hydration, avoid cold
Thrombolityc therapy- contraindicated in severe HTN.
Acute renal failure- reversible. Monitor I&O qhr and wt qd. Low protein. No K or Na in diet
Oliguric- lasts 8-15 days. no pee. s/s FVE. Kussmauls. High K. give Lasix
Diuretic- pees more. 4-5L daily. Give fluids
Recovery- lasts 2-3 yrs. Pees normal. Memory improves
Chronic renal failure- cardiac monitor due to high K. don’t give Aldactone or Dyrenium they retain K.
Disequilibrium syndrome- decrease stimuli. Give hypertonic sol or albumin. Slow or stop infusion.
Dialysis encepholapathy- give aluminum chelating agents
Bladder trauma- pt has pain bellow umbilicus that radiated to shoulder
Glaucoma- central visual field unaffected. They lose peripheral vision, its painful. Take meds(miotics) whole life. Meds cause pain and blurred vision.
Primary open angle glaucoma- painless, slow vision changes, “tunnel vision”
Primary angle closure glaucoma- blurred vision, halos, ocular erythema.
Acute angle closure glaucoma- medical emergency. Pt has N&V and pain
Cataract extraction- severe pain reported to MD stat! means hemorrhagic bleeding
Retinal detachment- pt see flashes of light and floaters, “curtain drawn over eye”. Painless.
Conductive hearing loss- external or middle ear obstruction. Hearing aids
Sensorineural hearing loss- pathological process of the inner ear. Usually permanent. Cochlear implants. The hearing aids only make the sound louder not clearer
Presbycusis- a sensorinueral hearing loss that happens with age. Pts hear mumbling.
Menieres- don’t give fluid or sodium. Give niacin
LP- contradicted in pt with IICP
ICP- early sign is altered LOC. Don’t flex legs or knees.
Head injury- elevate HOB to prevent IICP
Spinal shock- pt has paralitic ileus
Autonomic dysreflexia- occurs after spinal shock. An emergency! s/s HA, HTN, stuffy nose, flushing. Elevate HOB, loosen clothing, check for bladder distention. Give HTN meds. To prevent hypertensive stroke!
Right CVA- pt has left sided neglect
CVA- keep BP at 150/100 for purfusion.
Myasthenia gravis- monitor for aspiration.
Tensilon test- puts pt at r/f Vfib or cardiac arrest. Have atropine at bed side.
Parkinson disease- depleted dopamine. Rock back and forth to move. Lay prone with pillow. Avoid vit B6
Trigeminal neuralgia- face pain. Avoid extreme temps of food.
Guillian barre- ascending paralysis. Sensitive to pain. Monitor breathing!- resp arrest is possibility.
Lou gerrighs- involves motor system. No mental changes. No cure. Leads to paralysis then Resp arrest then death.
IICP- s/s High temp and BP, low RR and HR
Halo devices- no driving at all.
Goodpasteurs- involve lung and kidneys
Nephrostomy tube- never clamped. Report UO <30/hr STAT
Tracheostomy- Deflate cuff before inserting decannulation plug or pt will die!
Hemodyalisis- the excess removal of fluid can cause hypernatremia. Monitor Na.
Tonsillectomy- post op lay on side, no milk products.
Trachea-innominate artery fistula-trach pulsating with heart. Remove stat! medical emergency.
Cane- held on good side (COAL- cane opposite affected leg)
LE amputation- 1st 24 hr elevate to reduce edema, bed flat to prevent contracture. After 24hr put prone to extend/stretch and no elevation to prevent contracture.
Sprain- RICE 1st 24hrs then heat
Arthroscopic surgery- nurse can apply ice post op
Radiation- delayed until 8yo
Floater RN acts as LVN
DVT- warm moist compresses, promotes blood flow.
Pulse Ox is not accurate in CO poisoning cases because it cant distinguish between CO vs oxygen attached to Hgb
Total protein- 6-8gm/dL
3500calories= 1 lb of weight
When pt starts on beta blocker sx of CHF will initially get worse that’s ok. Ie crackles, fatigue, wt gain
COPD- caused by emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Low O2 via NC 2L/min.
K- is excreted by the kidneys so if the kidneys aren’t working the K cant get out so pt gets hyperkalemia
Calcitonin decreases calcium by grabing it and putting it back in the bones
Use weight to measure fluid volume adequacy, except with burns, youll measure I&O
Tetanus toxoid takes 2-4wks to develop antibodies, the immunoglobulin provides immediate protection.
Hyperkalemia happens after burns because the cells ruptured and K spills out. Monitor pt!
Electrical injury- put patient in heart monitor immediately! Pt at r/f Afib
Lobectomy- surgical side up so left over lobes can expand
Pneumonectomy- surgical side down so left over lung wont fill with water
Total laryngectomy- removal of vocal chords, epiglottis, and thyroid cartilage. Pt will have a tracheostomy. Position in semi fowlers and provide NG feedings. Have obturater at bedside. Watch for carotid artery rupture! Aka innominate artery, youll see the trach pulsating at the heart beat rhythm, a medical emergency!
Tracheostomy care- suctioning is sterile and hyperoxygenate before and after. Intermittent suction on the way out, suction for 10 seconds with 60 seconds in between times. The vagus nerve is stimulated so the HR drops, monitor for bradycardia.
Colon cancer- diagnosed with colonoscopy. Most common signs are rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits and anemia
Prostate cancer- most pts will initially have s/s of BPH. The most common sign is painless hematuria. Check PSA, should be <4ng/ml. diagnose with biopsy. Dr may do “watchful waiting”
BPH signs are no FUN: Frequency, Urgency, Nocturia
Ventilator alarms: HOLD
High pressure: Obstruction due to increased secretions in airways, bronchospasms, ET tube displacement, pt fighting ventilator, pt gagging, coughing or bitting tube
Low pressure: Disconnection or leak in the ventilator or in the pts airway cuff or pt stops breathing!
2-3 months: turns head side to side
4-5 months: grasps, swith and roll
6-7 months: sits at 6 and waves bye bye
8-9 months: stands straight at eight
10-11 months: belly to butt
12-13 months: tweleve and up drink from a cup
Autonomy – the right to self-determination
Beneficence – taking positive actions to help others
Nonmaleficence – avoidance of harm or hurt
Justice – fairness
Fidelity – agreement to keep promises
Veracity in general means accuracy or conformity to truth
Thiazides- not for pt with renal failure or allergies to sulfa drugs
Nicotinic acid- to lower cholesterol . causes flushing. Give NSAID 30 min before to reduce it.
TPN- used for: pancreatitis, ulcerative colitis, chrons disease, burn injury, cancer, AIDS, starvation. Its maintained in the fridge when not in use. Hypertonic solution that should be weaned off, never shake it, and room to warm temp priori to use
Oxazepam- Benzodiasepine given to pt with alcohol withdrawal symptoms.
Amphojel- causes constipation and tastes chalky
Amphothericin B- nephrotoxic
Adenosine- IVP 6mg FAST flush with NS. Brief asystole OK. For paroxysmal SVT
Benadryl- can be give to patients with parkinsons for tremors
Levodopa with MAOI= hypertensive crisis
Anticholinergics- contradicted in pt with glaucoma
Anticonvulsants- not taken with food or antacids
Dilantin- decreases contraceptive effect. NL level 10-20. Don’t give faster than 25-50mg/min. causes Leukopenia! Monitor WBC’s
Allopurinol and colchicine- not taken with aspirin. Take lots of fluid
Synthroid- increases effects of anticoagulants
Dopamine- for shock and heart failure. Increases CO and renal perfusion. Pt will pee more.
Librium- given for alcohol withdrawal
Methadone- used to detoxify narcotic addicts.
SSKI- given pre thyroidectomy to decrease vascularity. Give in milk or juice and use a straw .
Radioactive Iodine- for hyperthyroidism. Given in 1 dose. Stay away from babies X24hr. watch for thyroid storm as it could be a rebound effect from iodine
Tetracycline- avoid sun exposure, don’t take with milk.
Carbamazepine (Tegretol)- toxic levels cause diplopia, HA, and vertigo
Metformin with alcohol= lactic acidosis
Glucocorticoids- taken with meals or antacids, may cause ulcers
Furosemide- causes ototoxicity
Priscoline- causes severe hypotension
Haldol, thorzine, mellaril are typical antipsychotics
Zyprexa, Seroquel, abilify, clozaril are atypical antypsychotics
Oral potassium should never be taken on an empty stomach
IV K should never exceed 20 mEq/hr. don’t give K if pt has low UO.
Gentamycin- ototoxic, do vestibular check 4wks after discontinuation
Nitroglycerin- causes decreased preload and afterload. Pt will get a HA- give Tylenol.
Parnate- not given with Demerol
Byetta- causes pancreatitis
Isoniazid for TB should be taken for 6months
Doxycycline- should be avoided in pregnancy because it stains the neonates teeth
Salmeterol- is a maintenance drug for asthma.
Clozapine(clozaril)- causes severe tachycardia dont give if HR >140. Causes HTN and hyperglycemia. Causes agranulocytosis so monitor WBC’s
Diltiazem- IVP over 2min, can repeat in 15 min. for Afib or Aflutter
Depo-provera injection in women can cause depression if theyre already depressed
Nafcillin (Unipen)- AE’s-vomitting, diarrhea, sore mouth, fever
Methimazole/Tapazole- for thyroid storm. No more than 8 wks. Causes agranulocytosis check CBC’s.
Pentamidine (pentam)- causes FATAL hypoglycemia
Interferon alfa 2-a- for hep C cause flu like symptoms in the beginning.
Digoxin (in children)- don’t mix with food or fluids. Signs of toxicity = poor feeding, vomiting
Sandostatin/ocreotide- for acromegaly. GI upset and gallstones.
MTX toxicity- treat with Leucovorin (wellcovorin)
Levothyroxine- on an empty stomach in the AM.
Cobalamin/ Vit B12- dose is 1000mcg Im qd x2 wks, then weekly when Hct is ok then monthly for life
Varicella Zoster immunoglobin can prevent varicella on immunocompromised pts. Usually given.
Atrovent or Spiriva not given to pts with peanut allergies.
Anticoagulants are high alert meds that need to be double checked by other nurses
Prozac doses greater then 40mg should be divided in two doses
Defroxamine- antidote for iron poisoning
Vancomycin- not mixed with other medications
Neupogen- increases neutrophils WBC’s in patients undergoing chemo.
Fluoroquinulones- given with lots of water to prevent crystalluria
Accutane- check triglycerides because it elevates them. It’s a vit A derivative so avoid food with vit A
Cytoxan- give without food and lots of fluids to prevent cystitis
Hypokalemia ECG changes- ST depression, Inverted T wave, prominent U wave
ADH- AKA vasopressin
Ditropan- give for bladders spasms
DEFECTS WITH INCREASED PULMONARY BLOOD FLOW- CHILD SHOWS SYMPTOMS OF CHF
Atrial septal defect- opening between atria, causes too much oxygenated blood to go to rt side. So rt atrium and ventricle get enlarged. Close with cardiac cath.
Atrioventricular canal defect- common in down syndrome. Child get cyanotic whit crying. Murmur present. Child develops CHF.
Patent ductus arteriosus- failure for the artery connecting the aorta and pulmonary artery to close. Machinery like murmur, wide pulse pressure and bounding pulse present. Give Indomethacin/ Indocin to close it. Or with cardiac cath.
Ventricular Septal Defect- abn opening between lt and rt ventricles. Murmur present. Close on its own.
OBSTRUCTIVE DEFECTS- CHILD SHOWS SYMPTOMS OF CHF
Aortic stenosis- the narrowing doesn’t let the blood from the lt ventricle pass through the aorta. Results in decreased CO, lt ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular congestion. s/s of exercise intolerance, chest pain and dizziness when standing for long. Dilation during cath or valve replacement.
Coarctation of aorta- narrowing near ductus arteriosus. BP higher in UE. s/s of CHF and decreased CO. also headaches, dizziness, fainting, and epistaxis from HTN. Resection of coarted portion with anastomosis or Ballon angioplasty. Restenosis can reoccur.
Pulmonary stenosis- narrow entrance of pulmonary artery. Causes right ventricular hypertrophy. NB are cyanotic. Dilataion of the artery with cardiac cath.
DEFECTS WITH DECREASED PULMONARY BLOOD FLOW
Tetralogy of fallot- VSD, pulmonary stenosis, overriding aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy. Infants are cyanotic at birth and progresses the 1sr year of life. They have hypercyanotic blue spells “tet spells” when they cry, feed, or poop. With increasing cyanosis squatting, clubbing of fingers, and poor growth may occur. Tx with palliative shunt, Morphine. Or complete repair after 1yo.
Tricuspid artresia- no tricuspid valve, so no communication between rt atrium and rt ventricle.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome- Underdevelopment of lt side of heart. Fatal if not treated. May need heart transplant.
Rheumatic Fever- autoimmune inflammatory disease. Proceeds strep A infection. Can cause rheumatic heart disease which affects cardiac valves particularly the mitral valve. Jones criteria diagnoses RF. Major criteria: carditis, arthralgia, chorea, erythema marginatum, subQ nodules. Minor Criteria: Fever, arthralgia, high ESR, positive CRP level . Assessment: low grade fever that spikes in the PM. High ESR, +CRP, Aschoff bodies, + antistreptolysin O titer. Give Abx and seizure precautions.
Kawasaki disease- aka mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome. Its an acute systemic inflammatory disease. Cause unknown. Affects the heart, aneurysms can develop. s/s ACUTE: fever, red throat, red eye, swollen hands, lg lymph nodes. SUBACUTE: crackling lips, peeling fingers and toes, joint pain, thmbocytosis. CONVALESCENT stage: child appears nl but signs of inflammation present. Give fluids that are not too hot or cold. Wt daily. Monitor I&O. passive ROM. IV immunoglobulin. Avoid MMR and varicella for 11 months after IgG therapy. Put in quiet environment. They are very irritable.
Early signs of CHF: tachycardia, especially at rest and slight exertions. Tachypnea, scalp diaphoresis, fatigue, irritability, sudden weight gain, respiratory distress. – For all these heart probs - PROVIDE REST!
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome: toxins, chemicals, viruses cause acute renal failure in children 6mos to 5yo. S/S: triad of anemia, thrombocytopenia, renail failure, proteinuria, hematuria, urinary casts, elevated BUN and creatnine and decreased Hgb and Hct. Do hemodyalisi or peritoneal dialysis.
Bladder Exstrophy- bladder outside the body through defect in lower abdominal wall. Cover bladder with non-adhering plastic wrap. Surgery done.
Von Willebrands disease- hereditary. Bleeding from mucous membranes. Tx similar to hemophilia.
S/S of IICP: NL ICP= 5-15
Altered LOC- first sign
Rise in BP with widening pulse pressure
Slowing of pulse
Late Signs: (cushings triad- bradycardia, HTN, wide pulse pressure)
Increased systolic BP
Widened pulse pressure = increased systolic and low diastolic
Slowed heart rate
Non- reactive pupils
Positive Babinski reflex-stroke side of foot and big toe dorsiflexes and others extend
Decorticate or decerbrate posturing
Don’t give morphine sulfate. Mechanical ventilation to maintain Paco2 at 30-35mm Hg will result in vasoconstriction of the cerebral blood vessels, decreased blood flow, and therefore decrease ICP. Maintain BP. Prevent shivering. Decrease stimuli. Limit fluid intake. Avoid coughing and stuff. Elevate HOB. Do a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. HOB no more then 30 degrees elevation because the hip flexion causes an increase in ICP.
ICP increases with:
Left side paralysis (hemiplegia)
Left side neglect
Short attentions span
Paralyzed on right side
Place patient in quiet environment to avoid an IICP.
Hypertensive disease in pregnancy is divided into clinical subsets of the disease based on end-organ effects and progresses along a continuum from mild gestational hypertension, mild and severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome.
Vasospasm contributing to poor tissue perfusion is the underlying mechanism for the signs and symptoms of pregnancy hypertensive disorders.
Gestational hypertension (GH), which begins after the 20th week of pregnancy, describes hypertensive disorders of pregnancy whereby the woman has an elevated blood pressure at 140/90 mm Hg or greater, or a systolic increase of 30 mm Hg or a diastolic increase of 15 mm Hg from the prepregnancy baseline. There is no proteinuria or edema. The client’s blood pressure returns to baseline by 12 weeks postpartum.
Mild preeclampsia is GH with the addition of proteinuria of 1 to 2+ and a weight gain of more than 2 kg (4.4 lb) per week in the second and third trimesters. Mild edema will also begin to appear in the upper extremities or face.
Severe preeclampsia consists of blood pressure that is 160/100 mm Hg or greater, proteinuria 3 to 4+, oliguria, elevated serum creatinine greater than 1.2 mg/dL, cerebral or visual disturbances (headache and blurred vision), hyperreflexia with possible ankle clonus, pulmonary or cardiac involvement, extensive peripheral edema, hepatic dysfunction, epigastric and right upper-quadrant pain, and thrombocytopenia.
Eclampsia is severe preeclampsia symptoms along with the onset of seizure activity orcoma. Eclampsia is usually preceded by headache, severe epigastric pain, hyperreflexia, andhemoconcentrations, which are warning signs of probable convulsions.
HELLP syndrome is a variant of GH in which hematologic conditions coexist with severe
preeclampsia involving hepatic dysfunction. HELLP syndrome is diagnosed by laboratory
tests, not clinically.
H – hemolysis resulting in anemia and jaundice
EL – elevated liver enzymes resulting in elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate transaminase (AST), epigastric pain, and nausea and vomiting
LP – low platelets (< 100,000/mm3), resulting in thrombocytopenia, abnormal bleeding and clotting time, bleeding gums, petechiae, and possibly DIC
Gestational hypertensive disease and chronic hypertension may occur simultaneously Gestational hypertensive diseases are associated with placental abruption, acute renal failure, hepatic rupture, preterm birth, and fetal and maternal death
Administer IV magnesium sulfate, which is the medication of choice for prophylaxis or treatment. It will lower blood pressure and depress the CNS.
Place the client on fluid restriction of 100 to 125 mL/hr, and maintain a urinary output of 30 mL/hr or greater.