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wecan11 5,364 Views

Joined: Mar 30, '11; Posts: 129 (7% Liked) ; Likes: 11

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  • Apr 9

    Quote from cyram81
    this is what i have saved


    Hypernatremia
    Signs and Symptoms of Hypernatremia - FRIED

    Fever, flushed skin
    Restless
    Increased fluid retention
    Edema
    Decreased urine output, dry mouth

    Causes of Hypernatremia

    Medications, meals
    Osmotic diuretics
    Diabetes insipidus
    Excessive water loss
    Low water intake

    Hyponatremia

    Signs and Symptoms

    Stupor/coma
    Anorexia
    Lethargy
    Tendon reflexes decreased

    Limp muscles
    Orthostatic hypotension
    Seizures/headache
    Stomach cramps

    HyperkalemiaSigns and Symptoms

    Muscle weakness
    Urine - oliguria, anuria
    Respiratory distress
    Decreased cardiac contractility
    ECG changes
    Reflexes - hyperreflexia, areflexia

    Treatment

    Kayexalate - oral/rectal
    Insulin
    Na HCO3 (sodium bicarb)
    Diuretics

    Hypokalemia

    Signs and Symptoms

    6 L's
    Lethargy
    Leg cramps
    Limp muscles
    Low, shallow respirations
    Lethal cardiac dysrhythmias
    Lots of urine (polyuria)

    HypercalcemiaSigns and Symptoms

    I remember by the rhyme: Groans, Moans, Bones, Stones, and Overtones

    Groans: constipation
    Moans: pain - joint aches
    Bones: loss of calcium from bones, bone metastasis
    Stones: kidney stones
    Overtones: psychiatric overtones - depression, confusion

    Hypocalcemia

    Signs and Symptoms

    Convulsions
    Arrhythmias
    Tetany
    Spasms, stridor

    Alkalosis and Acidosis

    Alkalosis - has a 'k' - Kicking the pH up
    Acidosis - has a 'd' - Dropping the pH down

    Solutions: Isotonic, Hypotonic, Hypertonic

    Isotonic - "Same as I" - the solution used will be the same as normal body fluid composition. Fluids remain inside intravascular space.

    Hypotonic - "Hypo, hippo" - the solution pulls fluid from the intravascular space into the ICF - the cell "swells like a hippo".
    Thank You Very, Very Much!!



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