We have "provincial hospitals" here. They're usually reserved for the really intractable cases. Canada went through a reform of the mental health system about 20 years ago that wasn't really a reform. It was more of a "people with mental illnesses shouldn't be warehoused, so let's get them all out of institutions so they can live in poverty on ths streets" kind of plan. Community mental health services fall far short of the mark, but most people are still treated on an outpatient basis. Canada is a nanny state in a lot of ways, and the mentally ill can access all sorts of programs and funds if they know about them and know where to go. They fall under the heading of "severely handicapped" in Alberta, which gives them a monthly income of $1000, coverage for all prescribed meds, ambulance and emergency care, dental and vision care. However, the program is not user-friendly and requires the individual to have a bank account where the monthly cheque can be deposited directly and eligibility is reviewed annually. Recipients are mailed an 8 page questionnaire which is essentially a means test and confirmation that the person is still severely handicapped. Assistance with housing and community services have to be sought from other sources. See the problem with this scheme? Alberta is also the only province that charges health care premiums to the individual instead of using general tax income. If you don't pay your premiums ($44 a month, not a lot, but if you're living on the street...) they will refuse to cover your ongoing treatment. And these patchworked provincial programs are not seamless; if a person moves to another province to be closer to their family, they do not automatically qualify but must go through that province's processes, where perhaps they may not meet the criteria.
I know a young woman who is 34 years old and lives in British Columbia. She has been seriously depressed, with multiple axes diagnoses, for more than 7 years. When she had her breakdown she was living in the provincial capital, had a professional career and was building a life. But her parents lived in a smaller city some distance away and when it became obvious some four months later that she was not able to live alone anymore, she moved in with them. She was being seen three times a week by a psychiatrist in Victoria, but when she moved back home, the nearest psychiatrist who was taking on new patients was in a small town an hour and half's drive away through a mountain pass. She applied for and began receiving a disability pension including coverage for her meds. She has never recovered enough to work full time at any kind of job, although she no longer lives with her parents. She sees her psychiatrist every couple of months and in the interim her family physician fills the breach. Her mom and dad are older now and were thinking about moving to Alberta to be closer to their other children, who all live there. But they never made any serious inquiries about doing so out of concern that their daughter would not be able to receive the same level of care she's currently getting... It's a no-win situation.