I am currently living in Dubai and am *hopefully* going to start working soon, waiting on registration.
Yes, you do need to be married to live together in Dubai. From my knowledge, and someone please correct me if I am wrong, to live together outside of wedlock is considered adultery in the middle east. In saying that, I have also been told that this isn't particularly regulated. My husband and I have different last names and no one has come knocking on my door asking to see my marriage certificate (I carry it with my passport though, just in case >
You would have to negotiate with your potential employer regarding the number of working hours per week. I have heard that there are part time positions available, am yet to see any though.
It is "easy" to move here as long as your employer is prepared to set you up. When we moved, we had to organise everything ourselves, which was painful, BUT my husband's employer paid for a month in a hotel. You need your visa in order to get a bank account, which you need in order to get a cheque-book, which you need in order to rent an apartment etc.
I, personally, am still on the fence about living in Dubai. I certainly do NOT find it oppressive in any way, when I go out I ensure that I am dressed appropriately and have never been harrassed by anyone. It is definitely *different* in the eastern world, as opposed to the western world. Things are done with less urgency here (e.g. our bank account took at least a month to be processed).
Regarding hospital accommodation, I believe that, unless you are single, you wouldn't be eligible for it. My husband and I already had an apartment before I applied for any jobs so I'm not 100% on that one though. It would be something to negotiate with your employer.