Well, did she look like she was in pain? The MD was asking you for a specific reason. You reported her prescribed meds were far less than PTA and the patient told you it wasn't touching their pain.
It is your fault for letting the conversation even get to that point, but since you were there, why didn't you say "YES!" Which would presumably get increased pain meds for this patient? Don't have a pissing match with the MD, do what it takes to help the patient.
For instance, what dose did you want the MD to order? Whatever that does is, - ASK for it. You will either get that dose or you will force the on-call say "No."
If you get what you want - great. If you don't, you can document the heck out of the situation, "Informed oncall about uncontrolled pain and asked for . Oncall declined."
Use whatever format you want, SBAR or whatever, but if you appear organized and knowing the situation and what you want to do about it, you will have more success with on call physicians. If you just describe situations and say, "Well, what do you want to do about it?" then you are going to get silly questions from MDs.