Conflict management training should be a priority subject in nursing school, unfortunately, it is not. Cursing at your co-workers is highly frown upon; however, we are only human... don't beat yourself over that, anymore. A lesson to learn for this, never have that difficult conversation with someone when in anger or in an emotional state. Personally, I would suggest to call you manager, as soon as possible; speak your peace and request a face to face meeting with that charge nurse... let your manager mediate the situation (at the end of the day, conflict resolution is part of her job). Do not discuss the situation with anyone else in your workplace (venting or getting other's "perspective"...that just feed the gossip monster in the unit. If your hospital has an union, ask for a representative to come with you to that meeting...if not, go in with the mind set that you might be terminated; however, you will have the opportunity to share you side of the story. That is, if you are still interested in keeping this job. I am really concern with the environment in that unit (the fact that asking the CN for help didn't even crossed your mind is very telling of the toxic culture in that unit); regardless of the outcome of this situation, strongly consider transferring to another unit or charging hospitals.
Best of lucks to you and keep us posted.