Ugh, was hoping for magic tricks ;P Well here is my full list, glad it can help!
Complete blood count – CBC
RBC- red blood cells
carry oxygen from lungs to body
abnormal could mean: anemia, dehydration, bleeding
made in bone marrow. Womens usually lower.
Male 4.7 – 6.1
female 4.2 – 5.4
iron rich protein in RBCs that carries oxygen
abnormal could mean: anemia, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia (inherited disease)
main component of RBC. Female always less due to menstruation
male 14-18 g/dl
f 12-16 g/dl
% of RBC in whole blood
high could mean: dehydration, anemia
abnormal could mean: blood or bone marrow disorder
lack of fluids gives higher cell count
To classify anemia’s -
MCV Mean corpuscular volume
size of the RBCs
80 – 95 micrometers 3
MCH Mean corpuscular hemoglobin
weight of Hg
MCHC Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
RDW - RBC Distribution width %
calculation of the variation in size of your RBCs
WBC White blood Cells
part of immune system. Mature wbc deposited back into circulating blood. Constantly being formed & circulated.
CBC measures overall # of WBC in blood. A Differential count looks at the amount of diff types of WBC in the blood.
abnormal could mean: infection, blood cancer, immune system disorder
same for male & female
Neutrophil segs 55 – 70%
made in 7-14 days, lives only 6 hours
primary defense against bacterial infection – phagocytosis. (kill & digest bacteria)
When stimulated, immature cells enter circulation, aka bands or stabs. When you see this, its called “a shift to the left”, and indicates an ongoing bacterial infection.
primary component of body’s immune system. Divided into T & B cells
T cellular immune reactions
B humoral immunity (antibody production)
lymph’s fight chronic (long time) bacterial and acute (short) viral infections
phagocytic like neutrophils but are made quicker and stay in circulation longer
protect the body, engulf & kill bacteria and other microbes, like parasites.
Accumulate in excess #s as part of a reaction to antigenic stimulation such as allergy, cows milk intolerance, and gluten sensitivity.
Do NOT respond to bacterial or viral infections.
ingest foreign particles. Produce heparin and histamine (induce inflammation), often associated with asthma and allergies. Related mast cells help provide mediators to initiate immune response.
Do NOT respond to bacterial or viral infections.
Usually only done if a routine blood test (CBC) is abnormal. Definitively evaluates immature & abnormal cells. Some can show which antibiotic is needed.
vital role in clotting. Decreased= risk for bleeding. Increased= iron deficiency or malignancy
Can be tested in fluids other than blood – urine, GI fluid etc.
MPV mean platelet volume
% of platelets in whole blood
vary with platelet production, younger platelets are larger than older ones. Useful for diagnosis & info about platelet production.
Chem 7, lytes -Electrolyte blood tests include:
sodium potassium chloride bicarbonate BUN= blood urea nitrogen creatinine glucose
Sodium (lyte) 136-145 meq/L
possibly critical if less than 160
help regulate amount of water in body. Sodium passage in and out of cells is necessary for many body functions, like transmitting electrical signals in brain & muscles. Low level could be cause of profuse sweating or diuretics (excessive water loss) Check I&O.
High level can be caused by diarrhea and vomiting. Can be critical.
Potassium 3.5-5 meq/L
regulates heart beat. Low potassium = muscle weakness.
Chloride 98 -106 meq/L
assists in acid/base balance
Bicarbonate 22-26 meq/L
keeps tissues from getting too much or too little acid. kidney/lungs help balance/regulate levels of bicarbonate.
BUN blood urea nitrogen 10-20 mg/dl
indicates kidney function status. Urea is a nitrogen containing waste left from protein break down. Failing kidneys cause urea build up. Also caused by dehydration and excess bleeding. Less fluid volume = more blood components.
Creatinine male 0.6- 1.2mg/dl female 0.5-1.1 mg/dl
used along with BUN test to assess kidney function. Levels too high = kidneys aren’t excreting and filtering creatinine properly. Can also be raised by dehydration and muscle damage.
Glucose 70 – 110 mg/dll
glucose levels controlled by insulin and glucagon. Low levels indicate hypoglycemia. (Symptoms = sweating, shakes, dizzy)
To diagnose/monitor conditions that cause hypercoagulability (tendency to clot inappropriately). Positive ddimer means high level of fibrin degradation products in body. Elevation means theirs been a clot/thrombus formation and breakdown in body.
Coagulation studies – PT PTT INR
determines how quickly your blood clots
PT Prothrombin time 11-12.5 seconds
common cause of prolonged PT= vitamin K deficiency, hormone drugs like hormone replacements, oral contraceptives, DIC (a clotting problem) liver disease, using anti coagulant drugs like warfarin. Can also be altered by eating lots of vit. K, liver, green tea, dark veggies, soybeans.
PTT partial thromblastin time 30-40 seconds
done to determine if heparin (blood thinning) therapy is effective. Should be drawn 30-60 minutes before heparin is given.
INR 1-2 seconds
(coumadin/warfarin) used to monitor correct dose of coumadin, also with PT results.
Artery draw, not a venous blood draw. Evaluates gas exchange in lungs. Place on ice immediately, use heparinized blood gas syringe, place pressure 3-5 minutes afterward.
PH acidity or alkalinity (based on hydrogen ions) 7.35-7.45
Pao2 partial pressure of oxygen 80-100mm Hg
SpO2 arterial oxygen saturation 95-100%
PaCO3 partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood 35-45mm Hg
HCO3 activity in kidneys to retain or excrete bicarbonate 22-26 meq/L
Base excess: amount of buffering ions in blood 2 to +2
Cardiac enzymes: CPK, CK, & protein troponin. Released if your heart muscle is injured, leaks out of damaged heart cells. CPK CK can elevate within 18 hours after injury. Troponin specific for cardiac injury, can elevate within 3 hours of injury.
total cholesterol less
HDL high density lipoprotein – Good hdl/heavenly cholesterol
male 40-50 mg/dl (1.0 – 1.3 mmol/L)
female 50-59 mg/dl (1.3- 1.5)
LDL low=lousy bad cholesterol
less than 100 mg/dL
Triglycerides are a form of fat and a major source of energy for the body.
Less than 150mg/dL
TSH main test for thyroid function
T3 usually ordered following abnormal TSH & T4.
T3 and t4 are major hormones made by the thyroid gland.
Excessive t3 and t4 causes hyperthyroidism= nervousness, hand tremors, weight loss, insomnia, puffy, dry eyes.
Insufficient t3 and t4 causes hypothyroidism: slow metabolism, weight gain, dry skin, fatigue, constipation.
Mostly NTK that TSH T3 T4 are drawn for thyroid problem.
Type & Screen aka Type + Cross match
blood typing – test that identifies blood group antigens (substance that stimulates immune response) belonging to the ABO blood group system. Nursing student can NOT do this procedure. Blood bank staff does all testing and will cross match the # of units requested. Units of blood will be set aside so they’re ready if the dr. says a blood transfusion is needed. If no transfusion, a type and screen should be requested. Type & cross requested if a transfusion is very likely. More important during times of blood shortages. Blood sample must be no older than 3 days.
If infection/UTI suspected, do a clean catch urine culture.
pH -highly acidic
specific gravity- low hydration, high dehydration
proteins- if present, indicates kidney/renal disease
glucose – indicates diabetes
ketones- present with diabetes or calorie deprivation.
Blood glomerulonephritis or menses
leukocyte esterase- positive means UTI
nitrites- screens for Uti
crystals – renal stone formation imminent