DO get the ATI TEAS V Study Guide. A thorough review of this will outline the math & science--& will show you English & Reading questions you may not have thought of.
The 'math' is largely (not entirely) arithmetic--can you accurately add & subtract with paper (supplied) & pencil? (See the Study Guide.)
Passing percentage is defined by the school you apply to. Successful applicants at many schools score 20% or more, higher than the minimum passing score. E.g., 67% passing where I applied, but those admitted score in the 80's & 90's, so I've been told. As others have said, how many times you can take it, and in what time frame, are also school-defined.
Dunno where you are--& don't need to; but as to how often the test is given (& where), pull up ATI's website, go to the store link (upper right, I think)--you don't even need an ATI account for this, select various states, & within any state, various cities. And you will find that: TEAS V is not offered in all states; it may be offered in only 1 or 2 places in a state; (probably won't show this now, but) summer offerings are much fewer than during the school 'year'; and many schools offer the test ONLY to their own applicants. I took the test in June & in August, and the nearest place available to take it was 500 miles away.
Hope this helps.