You will learn each system that way, down to the minutia.
You won't really do an assessment like that though. You can be thorough and fast, and get the data you need.
Vital signs, including pain!
Bowels sounds. THEN palpate
Cap refill (maybe)
Skin - integrity of the IV site, status of incision, etc. Color, temperature, MM's moist or not?
Neuro - are they oriented, confused, etc... any numbness?
How are they doing with their current situation emotionally? Has family been in? Do they have any concerns?
Call light within reach? Bed down? Walker/crutches/whatever close by? Bed rails up? Bed alarm set?
Then you add on anything that's pertinent to that specific patient and their care. If they had a head injury or spinal surgery obviously your neuro stuff is going to be more complicated. If they just had a baby you are checking fundus and peri. You need to check drains, tubes, correct IV flow rate, dressings, etc as needed.
Just go from top to bottom or whatever makes sense to you. Just find a way to make it make sense and you won't miss anything and you'll be able to go super fast. :)