URETER - are tubes that carry urine from the renal pelvis of the kidneys to the bladder.
URETHRA - convey urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. Is shorter in female that make them prone to UTI
ALDOSTERONE - hormone that increases the reabsorption of sodium in the kidney and help regulate the concentration of mineralcorticoid such as Na and K. It also helps the kidney to conserve Na ions and excrete K ions.
TRANSVERSE - planes that divide a structure into superior and inferior portion such as up and down.
SAGITTAL - planes that divide a structure into left and right portion.
FRONTAL - planes that divides a structure into anterior and posterior portion.
MEDIAL - towards midline
LATERAL - away from the midline.
PROXIMAL - nearest or closer to the trunk of origin and is the opposite of distal.
DISTAL - farthest from the trunk of origin.
INFERIOR - below
SUPERIOR - above
RIGHT VENTRICLE - pumps blood to the lungs in the pulmonary artery
LEFT VENTRICLE - pumps blood through the aorta to the rest of the body.
SYMPATHETIC - fight or flight, causes increase in HR, increase BR, decrease digestive rate and pupil dilation.
PARASYMPATHETIC - rest and digestive response: decrease HR, increase digestive rate, no effect on BR and pupil dilation.
SMOOTH MUSCLE - involuntary muscle
SKELETAL MUSCLE - voluntary muscle
CARDIAC MUSCLE - involuntary muscle
VENTRICLE - larger, a muscular chambers, located at the lower chamber of the heart and received blood from atrium and force blood into the body/pump blood out of arteries.
ATRIUM -chambers where blood from vein collect and is pumped into ventricle and receives blood from the pulmonary vein and force blood into the body.
ENDOCARDIUM - inner layer of the heart wall that consist of epithelium and CT.
MYOCARDIUM - thick middle layer that composed of smooth and cardiac muscle.
EPICARDIUM - outermost layer that protects the heart by reducing friction.
TRICUSPID VALVE - located between Right Atrium and Right Ventricle (TRR).
MITRAL VALVE - located between Left Atrium and Left Ventricle (MLL).
AORTA - largest artery in the body.
CHORDAE TENDINAE - attach to TRR.
SYSTOLE - heart wall contract (SC)
DIASTOLE - heart wall relax (DR)
SWEAT GLAND - are exocrine gland in the skin that secretes a mixture of water, salt, and other bodily waste.
SUDORIFEROUS GLANDS - are sweat glands
ECCRINE GLANDS - abundant on the forehead, back, palms, soles and function in evaporative cooling.
APOCRINE GLANDS - are found in the axillary and pubic region which function at puberty as a sexual attraction.
R- ATRIUM - pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery.
LEFT ATRIUM - oxygenation bloods returns through the pulmonary vein to the LA.
VALVES - keep blood from moving backward.
PULMONARY CIRCULATION - lungs
SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION - rest of the body.
MAMMARY GLANDS - are specialized sudiferous gland w/I the breasts of female, which milk under hormonal influence.
GASTRIC GLANDS - gland within the stomach wall that secretes gastric juice, acid, mucous and protease.
LACRIMAL GLAND - tear secreting gland.
SMALL INTESTINE - mixes food with bile and pancreatic juice and nutrient absorption and digestion. Helps aid in digestion and absorption.
LARGE INTESTINE - helps aid in reabsorption of waste and waster to form feces.
ORGANELLE - structurally discrete component of a cell that performs a specific function.
ABRASION - injury to the integrity of the skin resulting in skin loss.
LIVER- secretes bile and fat emulsification.
SEBACEOUS GLANDS - oil glands that secret acidic sebum, lubricate and waterproof of the skin.
ABSCESS - pus forming a pocket.
ACAPNIA - low level of CO2 in the blood
BALANITIS - inflammation of the penis.
CARBUNCLE - skin disease associated with boils.
BRAINSTEM - keep the person alive, breathing, HR, coughing and vomiting.
CEREBELLUM - helps in coordination, posture, motor memory, voluntary movement & learning.
THALAMUS - essential in focusing and sends signal around the brain.
HYPOTHALAMUS - control body temperature, appetite, sleep/hormone.
PINEAL GLAND - release melatonin that aid in sleeping.
CORPUS CALLOSUM - connect the L& R hemispheres.
CEREBRUM - conscious activities, intelligence, language, skeletal muscle movement & senses.
CORTEX - voluntary motor activity, cell bodies and dendrite for thinking.
VEINS - carry blood towards the heart
ARTERY - carry blood away from the heart.
PERICARDIUM - layers that encloses the heart.
LIGAMENT - bone to bone. (LBB)
TENDONS - muscle to bone. (TMB)
ARTERY - carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissue of the body. Arteries are thick wall, muscular and elastic. Conduct blood at high pressure, have pulse and no valve to prevent backflow.
VEINS - carry oxygenated back to the heart from the capillaries. Vein are thin wall, conduct blood at low pressure because they are at the same distance from the pumping heart. Veins have valve to prevent backflow and no pulse.
ANTERIORY PITUITARY GLAND - GH, ACTH, PRT, FSH, LH, TSH
POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND - ADH and OT.
PARATHYROID GLANDS - located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. It secretes parathyroid hormone that regulates calcium and phosphate.
MEDULLA OBLONGATA - regulate breathing, HR, GI activity.
MITOSIS - produces diploid cells from diploid cells, occur in dividing cells, no homologous pairing and no cross over.
MEIOSIS - produces haploid cells from diploid cells, occur in sex cells known as gametocytes. It involves in pairing of homologous series and cross over.
INSULIN - secrete by pancreas.
LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION - subatomic, atom, molecules, macromolecules, organelle, cells, tissue, organ, organ system and organism. (SAMMOCTOOS).
MACROMOLECULES - are protein and DNA.
ORGANELLE - mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, centrosomes, perixosomes, ER, vesicles e.t.c
CELLS - muscle and nerve cells.
TISSUES- Epithelial and connective tissue.
ORGAN - skin, femur, heart, ulna, kidney, spleen.
ORGAN SYSTEM - integumentary, lymphatic, reproductive, respiratory.
AXIAL PORTION - head (cranial cavity - brain), vertebral (spinal cord).
APPENDICULAR PORTION - upper and lower limbs.
THORAIC CAVITY - is separated from the lower abdominopelvic cavity by a broad thin muscle called diaphragm. Thoracic cavity composed of lungs & region between the MEDIASTINUM - region between the lungs, which separate the thorax into two compartments that contain R & L lungs. Heart, esophagus, trachea and thymus gland are within mediastinum.
DIAPHRAGM - when at rest curves upward and contract during inhalation (downward.)
ABDOMINAL PELVIC CAVITY - consists of stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, small and large intestine.
PELVIC CAVITY - consist of terminal end of a large intestine, urinary bladder, ureter, urethra, and reproductive organ.
SEROUS MEMBRANE - line the wall of the thoracic and abdominal cavity and fold back to cover the organs within these cavities.
SEROUS MEMBRANE - secrete a slippery serous fluid that separate the layers lining the wall of thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity.
PERICARDIUM - heart
ABDOMINOPELVIC - peritoneal membrane
VISERAL - cover organ
QUADRANT REGION OF ABDOMINAL WALL -
Right Hypochondria, Epigastric, and Left Hypochondria (RH-E-LH).
Right Lumbar, Umbilical, and Left Lumbar. (RL- U- LL).
Right Iliac, Hypogastric, and Left Iliac. (RI- E- LI).
INTERGUMENTARY SYSTEM - protect tissues; regulate body temperature and support sensory receptors.
SKELETAL SYSTEM - provide framework, protect soft tissue, provide attachment for muscle and store inorganic salts.
MUSCULAR SYSTEM - causes movement, maintain posture and produce body heat.
NERVOUS SYSTEM - detects changes, receives and interprets sensory information, stimulate muscle and gland.
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM - control metabolic activities of body structures.
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM - heart, arteries, capillaries and vein move blood vessels and transport substances through the body.
LYMPHACTIC SYSTEM - return tissue fluid to the blood, carry certain absorbed food molecules and defend the body against infection.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM - receive, breakdown, absorb food and eliminate unabsorbed material.
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM - intake and output of air, exchange of gases between air and blood.
URINARY SYSTEM - removes waste from blood, maintain water and electrolyte balance, store and transport urine.
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM - produce and maintain egg cells, receive sperm cells, support development of an embryo and function in birth process.
RNA - contain nucleotide that have ribose sugar and is a single polynucleotide.
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid that has deoxyribose sugar and double polynucleotide. It makes copies and replicate.
CELL MEMBRANE - outermost limit of a cell, which controls the entrance and exit of substance, allowing some while excluding other. Cell membrane composed of protein and lipid.
CYTOPLASM - appear clear with scattered species.
RIBOSOMES - contain protein and RNA which provide structurally support and enzymatic activity to link AA to form protein synthesis.
ENDOPLASMIC RECTICULUM - contain membrane bound flattened sacs elongated canal and fluid filled vessels. Helps in transport system for molecules throughout the cell. It also helps in protein synthesis and lipid molecules.
GOLGI APPARATUS - packaging, delivers and transport and secretion.
VESICLES - store and transport newly synthesized molecules.
MITOCHONDRIA - release energy from food molecules and transport energy into usable form.
LYSOSOMES - scavengers, contain enzymes capable of digesting worn cellular parts or substance that enter the cells.
PEROXISOMES - contain enzyme called peroxidase that is important in breaking down of many organic molecules.
CENTROSOMES - help distribute chromosomes to new cells during cell division and initiate formation of cilia.
CILIA - propel fluids over cellular surface and helps to trap debris and keep foreign substances from entering the lungs.
FLAGELLA - enable sperms cells to move.
MICROTUBLES & MICROFILAMENT - support cytoplasm and help move substances and organelle within cytoplasm.
NUCLEAR ENVELOPE - maintains cell integrity of the nucleus and controls the passage of material between the nucleus and cytoplasm.
CHROMATIN - control cellular information for protein synthesis.
PHYSICAL OR PASSIVE TRANSPORT - required no energy such as diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion and filtration.
PHYSIOLOGICAL OR ACTIVE TRANSPORT - require energy such as endocytosis, pinocytosis, phagocytosis and exocytosis.
ACTIVE TRANSPORT - area of lower concentration to higher concentration.
DIFFUSION - area of higher concentration to area of lower concentration.
OSMOSIS - movement from area of lower concentration to area of higher concentration.
FACILITATED DIFFUSION - molecules that move across the membrane through channel from region of higher concentration to region of lower concentration.
ISOTONIC - same osmotic pressure.
HYPOTONIC - lower osmotic pressure.
HYPERTONIC - higher osmotic pressure.
MITOSIS - also known as somatic or nonsex such as skin. It produces 2 daughter cells from original cells such as 46 (DNA).
MEIOSIS - cells that give rise to sex cells. Sperm and eggs (gametes) 23+ 23 = 46
ATP - energy in a form that the cell can use. Each ATP consists of 3 main parts such as adenine, ribose and 3 phosphates ATP while the 2nd and the 3rd phosphate are attached by high-energy bond.
ANABOLISM- building and dehydration synthesis.
CATABOLISM - breakdown and hydrolysis in which water is used to split.
HISTOLOGY- study of tissue.
CONNECTIVE TISSUES - bind, support, protect, fill spaces, store fat and produce blood cells.
EPITHELIAL TISSUE - protection, secretion, absorption, excretion (PASE)
MUSCLE TISSUE -movement.
NERVOUS TISSUE - transmit impulses for coordinating regulation, integration and sensory reception.
EPIDERMIS LAYER - CLGSB.
SEBACEOUS GLAND - oil gland of the skin which secret sebum.
ECCRINE - regulate body temperature by releasing a watery secretion.
APOCRINE - groin and armpit area that attract bacteria and give the body odor.
LONG BONE - forearm and thigh.
SHORT BONE - wrist and ankle
FLAT BONE - ribs, scapula, skull bone.
IRREGULAR BONE - facial bone
SESAMOID BONE - patellar
BALL & SOCKET JOINT - allow movement in all plane and rotation. Hip and shoulder.
CONDYLOID JOINT - movement in different plane with no rotation. Metacarpal and phalanx.
GLIDING JOINT - sliding and twisting. Wrist and ankle.
PIVOT JOINT - allow rotation. Radius and ulna.
HINGE JOINT - allow flexion and extension. Flexion and rotation.
SADDLE JOINT - thumb and metacarpal.
ACH - neurotransmitters that motor neurons use to control skeleton muscle contraction.
NEUROTRANSMITTER - neuron that communicate with cells which is control by releasing chemicals.
QUADRICEP GROUP - rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and vastus intermedialis. QRVVV
HAMSTRING GROUP - bicep femoris, semitendanous, semimembraneous and sartorious.
CRANIAL NERVES - 1.Olfactory 2.Optic 3.Occulomotor 4.Trochlear 5.Trigeminal 6.Abducens 7.Facial 8.Vestocochlear 9.Glossapharyngeal 10.Vagus 11.Accessory 12. Hypoglossal.
ASCENDING TRACT - sensory neurons
DECENDING TRACT - motor neuron
FRONTAL LOBES - intellectual.
PARIETAL LOBES - temperature, pain, touch and pressure.
TEMPORAL LOBES - hearing or auditory.
OCCIPITAL LOBES - vision.
MIDBRAIN - control reflex center that moves eyes, head and maintain posture.
PONS - regulate rate and depth of breathing.
MEDULLA OBLONGATA - respiratory control.
POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND - ADH and OT.
ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND - TSH, GH, ACTH, PRL, LH, FSH.
TYHROID STIMULATIN HORMONE - T3, T4 and Calcitonin.
PARATHYROID GLAND - Parathyroid hormone
ADRENAL MEDULLA - Inner portion. EPI and NE
ADRENAL CORTEX - Outer portion. Aldosterone and Cortisol.
PANCREAS - Glucagons and Insulin.
ADH - decrease urine formation. Increase in ADH will increase blood pressure.
FSH - stimulate production of sperm cells in testes.
LH - promote secretion of sex hormones.
ALDOSTERONE - help regulate the concentration of mineralocorticoid such as Na and excrete K.
CALCITONIN - lower blood calcium and phosphate concentration.
WBC- Granulocyte with granules. Neutrophil aid in phagocyte, Basophil aids in histamine and heparin, Eosinophil aids in inflammation and allergy. Agranulocyte lack granules. Monocyte aids in phagocyte and Lymphocyte aids in immunity.
RBC - biconcave in shape.
ATRIA - upper chamber of the heart, which receive blood from the heart.
VENTRICLE - force blood out of the heart into arteries.
RA - receive blood from 2 large veins IVC and SVC. Both return blood low in oxygen.
CORONARY SINUS - small vein that drain blood into RA.
TRICUSPID - located between RA and RV (TRR).
MITRAL/BICUSPID - located between LA and LV (MLL).
GALLBLADDER - store bile and emulsifies fat and is located on the right upper quadrant of the abdominal region.
LARGE INSTESTINE - absorbs water and electrolyte to form feces.
SMALL INSTESTINE - mixes food with bile, pancreatic juice and nutrient absorption/ digestion.
TUBULAR REABSORPTION - water, electrolyte and glucose re-absorption.
VILLI/MICROVILLI - helps increase surface area of intestine lining.
CILLIA - aids in moving mucous and trapped particles.
NEPHRON - control composition of body fluids and remove waste from the blood and product is urine.
TUBULAR SECRETION - waste product and substance in excess are allowed out of the body such as hydrogen ion and toxin.
ACTIN - protein in a muscle fiber that forms filament that slides between filaments of the protein, myosin and contracting muscle fiber.
ABDUCTION - movement of a body part away from midline.
ADDUCTION - movement of a body part towards the midline.
AFFERENT - towards
EFFERENT - away.
ANATOMY - branches of science that deal with form and structure of a body part.
CONTRALATERAL - position on the opposite side.
IPSLATERAL - position on the same side
BILATERAL - on both side.