Your post had a lot of food for thought and questions. I can answer some of them from one perspective and I'm sure others will have a different perspective and answers for your other questions.
You are not alone in graduating from nursing school with no discussion of these issues. I am about to graduate from NYU, which you would think might be on the liberal end of things, and we have also had no discussion of birth control or abortion in any of our courses, including maternity nursing. We briefly touched on miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy but that was it.
Luckily I can answer a few of your questions because I previously worked at a Planned Parenthood clinic alongside RNs and NPs. Planned Parenthood had very well developed in house trainings for all of its staff, both when starting and for continuing education. I would guess and hope that if you decide to go into ob/gyn nursing you will get more specialized training at any employer. The RNs and NPs at Planned Parenthood had an orientation that included preceptorship and supervised practice and that was tailored to their previous experience - longer for new grads. This training definitely included counseling skills, and contrary to what some people believe, yes, education in helping patients to consider parenthood or adoption if they were unsure that abortion was the right choice for them. Women who came for abortions spent a long time in the clinic talking with a variety of staff, including RNs and NPs, about their decision to make sure they were confident it was the best choice for them and to make sure they were making the decision, not someone else.
The dangers of working at an agency that provides abortions depends on the community and area you are in. The clinic I worked at was in a more liberal area of the US and although we had occasional protesters, they were polite about it (quiet praying), and I never felt in danger. However, working at a clinic in a different part of the country would be a whole other story, and the media does not exaggerate. Let's not forget that a ob/gyn who provided abortions, Dr. George Tiller, was shot to death in his Kansas church two years ago by a protester.
In terms of nursing care you are right on the money with infection and hemorrhage. Counseling is a big part of it too. Education on post-procedure care is important, as well as starting them on a birth control method if they want one and teaching them how to use it. For surgical procedures sedation, either oral or iv is used, so just as in an endoscopy or other minor procedure there is post-procedure recovery and vital signs monitoring. Rhogam is given to RH negative women to protect future pregnancies and future visits for regular checkups or STI screening are encouraged.
If you are interested, why don't you try to find a text book on the subject and learn on your own? You could also look for journal articles on the subject while you still have access to your school's library databases.
I hope I helped answer a few of your questions and, like you, I'm not interested in starting a flame war about beliefs, I'm just putting my perspective and experience out there.