I'll try to answer some of the ones I'm familiar with. Hopefully a WOC nurse will see this soon. (Some of the questions I remember being answered in a class that I took, but it's been too long.)
1. A duoderm is this rubbery type of thing that will stick to the skin. They're traditionally put on pressure sores. I personally HATE them and they've fallen out of favor. But some old school folks swear by them. My problem with them is they're often used on the butt, which means they get stool stuck on them and if you try to remove a duoderm before its time (IIRC it's a week, but it's been a long time since I've used one, so probably wrong on that.) Anyway, try to remove it early, it will pull off skin with it. There are better dressings now. But old habits die hard.
2. Tegaderm is a clear plastic dressing that sticks on one side. Most often used over an IV site. There are probably better things for wounds. I personally like them if I'm at work with a cut finger. I put on a bandaid, then cover around it with 1 or 2 tegaderms. Keeps all the water out. That's a major downside, as it will also keep ALL of the moisture in as well.
4. Wet to dry. If you do a true wet to DRY, it's going to indiscriminately yank up all the tissue that's stuck to it. Not just the yuck your trying to get rid of, but new healing tissue as well. And it hurts like hades. I've noticed physicians often order this if they want to keep the woundbed moist. In which case it's actually a wet to moist dressing. Which can sometimes work. It's old school and with the new dressings and treatments, I'm sure there's more modern things. But it's cost effective and easy to do. If keeping the wound bed moist is the purpose, don't just rip it off if it's dry. Dampen it with some saline so you don't rip up the wound bed. And when putting in a new one, don't saturate the gauze until it's dripping, you want damp. Soaking wet leads to what's called "prune skin." Like sitting in your bath too long.
6. Mepilex is AWESOME. It's a silicone that does a good job of keeping wounds the right amount of moist. I'm a fan of the mepilex transfer around Gtube sites. I'm not familiar with the heel dressings though.
The other stuff I'm not sure at all about. Hopefully a WOC nurse will be around soon to answer your questions and correct my answers as needed.