I understand your conundrum.
(Bear with me for a moment) US nursing school programs, unlike that of other practice professions, do not currently include a terminal practicum/residency for completion because we have always relied on hospitals to provide transition programs for new grads - maybe this will change in the future.
But for now, new grads need work experience to 'finish' their training before they are really competent to practice independently. However, some of the jobs you listed are part of what we can refer to as the "illness treatment continuum". This means that they involve care immediately pre- or post-hospitalization or services that are associated with illness treatment (urgent care, ED, Case Management). Some of the jobs are simply 'illness care' in an alternative setting (corrections, ambulatory surgery). In order to practice in these settings, you will need to have an acute care skill set. This is particularly true for jobs that require an in-depth understanding of how treatment occurs in various settings as well as treatment options and how they are managed (e.g. case management).
If you explore the qualifications listed for those alternative jobs, you will probably find that they are seeking candidates with this type of foundational knowledge... essentially a nurse who has 'finished' his/her nursing education with practical work experience. These settings rarely have the type of formal transition/training program required by new grads. They are seeking staff who can confidently and quickly step into those roles and function at a high level with very little backup.
Working in a non-acute setting also has career consequences. These settings have less stress, but also lower salaries and virtually no career advancement opportunities. If you discover that you don't really like it &/or are seeking higher salary, advanced practice or career advancement - you'll need to move back into an acute care setting. This is extremely difficult to do without recent experience.