Hap, and PAC does that mean that if NP programs added another thirty hours or so in additional classes such as gross anatomy, and advanced, advanced (since many already have advanced patho) pathophysiology that you would be satisfied and agree to more NP autonomy? Don't get me wrong, I do NOT blaim you for opposing the expansion of NP autonomy, just be honest and "keep it real". Every profession seeks to protect, and at the same time expand it's "turf". It is intrinsic in our economic system from accountants and appraisers to zoologists and zoo-keepers. At the same time almost none of these groups will admit their true motivations (and yes this probably includes NP's from time to time also). M.D's will wage a legislative, and PR war with NP's. Sometimes they will win, and sometimes they will lose (other times it will be a stalemate). NP's can appeal to HMO's, insurance companies, government, and hospitals that they are safe, and COST EFFECTIVE (in a setting of health care inflation that runs double to triple the rate of overall inflation in the overall economy). On the other hand M.D's can appeal to tradition, and the great trust that the public tends to place in them (as well as rely upon long established political contacts, and considerable economic firepower). It will be an interesting contest, but don't pretend it is something other than what it actually is, a battle rooted in our economic history and intrinsic to our economic system.