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Queen Tiye, CNA 4,060 Views

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    First diagnosed case of Ebola in the U.S.

    By Dana Ford, CNN
    updated 8:04 PM EDT, Tue September 30, 2014

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    • NEW: Crew that transported the patient to the hospital has been isolated
    • "I have no doubt that we'll stop this in its tracks in the U.S," CDC director says
    • Ebola is spread by direct contact with someone sick with the virus
    • The patient recently arrived in the United States from Liberia

    Atlanta (CNN) -- A patient being treated at a Dallas hospital is the first person diagnosed with Ebola in the United States, health officials announced Tuesday.
    The unidentified man left Liberia on September 19 and arrived in the United States on September 20, said Dr. Thomas Frieden, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    At that time, the individual did not have symptoms. "But four or five days later," he began to exhibit them, Frieden said. The individual was hospitalized and isolated Sunday at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital.
    Citing privacy concerns, health officials declined to release any details about how the patient contracted the virus, what he was doing in Liberia or how he was being treated.
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    "I can say he is ill. He is under intensive care," Dr. Edward Goodman of the hospital told reporters.
    The patient is believed to have had a handful of contacts with people after showing symptoms of the virus, and before being isolated, Frieden said. A CDC team was en route to Texas to help investigate those contacts.
    The crew that transported the patient to the hospital has been isolated, the chief of staff for Dallas Mayor Mike Rawlings told CNN.
    At the same time, Frieden sought to play down the risk to public health. There are currently no other suspected cases of Ebola in Texas.
    "It's a severe disease, which has a high-case fatality rate, even with the best of care, but there are core, tried and true public health interventions that stop it," Frieden said.
    "The bottom line here is that I have no doubt that we will control this importation or this case of Ebola so that it does not spread widely in this country," he said.
    According to the CDC, Ebola causes viral hemorrhagic fever, which can affect multiple organ systems in the body and is often accompanied by bleeding.
    Early symptoms include sudden onset of fever, weakness, muscle pain, headaches and a sore throat, each of which can be easily mistaken early on for other ailments like malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis.
    Ebola is spread by direct contact with someone sick with the virus. That means people on the patient's flight are not thought to be at risk, as he did not begin to show symptoms until several days after arriving in the United States, Frieden said.
    "The issue is not that Ebola is highly infectious. The issue with Ebola is that the stakes are so high," he told reporters.
    How the virus spreads
    The director declined to answer whether the patient is a U.S. citizen, saying just that he was in Texas to visit family.
    Frieden also declined to say, clearly, whether the patient is a man, although he referred to the person as "he" on multiple occasions.
    A number of other Americans have been diagnosed with the disease in West Africa and then brought to the United States for treatment.
    Ebola virus: 9 things to know about the killer disease
    The Ebola outbreak has been centered in the West African countries of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, though there have been concerns about international air travel and other factors -- including the fact the symptoms might not appear until two to 21 days after one is infected -- may contribute to its spread.
    More than 3,000 people in West Africa have died after being infected with Ebola, according to a World Health Organization report from last week. The same report stated that there had been 6,553 cases of the virus overall, though the number is suspected to be much higher, given difficulties in tracking and reporting the disease.
    The reason Ebola isn't being stopped
    "I have no doubt that we'll stop this in its tracks in the U.S. But I also have no doubt that as long as the outbreak continues in Africa, we need to be on our guard," said Frieden.

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    brandy1017 and MassED like this.

    Ebola is spread by means other than body fluids, or else the American experts who were working over-seas would have never caught the disease. HIV is spread via body fluids, and even the lay person knows how to avoid contracting HIV. So why aren't medical personnel in Liberia, Sierra Leone, or Guinea contracting HIV, or other pathogens that spread via body fluids, at an alarming rate?

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    Indigo_Beauty likes this.

    [FONT=comic sans ms, sans-serif][COLOR=#ff00ff]From Pigs to Monkeys, Ebola Goes Airborne | HealthMap

    [FONT=comic sans ms, sans-serif][COLOR=#ff00ff]

    From Pigs to Monkeys, Ebola Goes Airborne[FONT=MuseoSans-300]Nov 21, 2012 | Jane Huston | Research & Policy

    by rubber bullets 2010, via flickr[FONT=MuseoSans-300]When news broke that the Ebola virus had resurfaced in Uganda, investigators in Canada were making headlines of their own with research indicating the deadly virus may spread between species, through the air.
    [FONT=MuseoSans-300]The team, comprised of researchers from the National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, the University of Manitoba, and the Public Health Agency of Canada, observed transmission of Ebola from pigs to monkeys. They first inoculated a number of piglets with the Zaire strain of the Ebola virus. Ebola-Zaire is the deadliest strain, with mortality rates up to 90 percent. The piglets were then placed in a room with four cynomolgus macaques, a species of monkey commonly used in laboratories. The animals were separated by wire cages to prevent direct contact between the species.
    [FONT=MuseoSans-300]Within a few days, the inoculated piglets showed clinical signs of infection indicative of Ebola infection. In pigs, Ebola generally causes respiratory illness and increased temperature. Nine days after infection, all piglets appeared to have recovered from the disease.
    [FONT=MuseoSans-300]Within eight days of exposure, two of the four monkeys showed signs of Ebola infection. Four days later, the remaining two monkeys were sick too. It is possible that the first two monkeys infected the other two, but transmission between non-human primates has never before been observed in a lab setting.
    [FONT=MuseoSans-300]While the study provided evidence that transmission of Ebola between species is possible, researchers still cannot say for certain how that transmission actually occurred. There are three likely candidates for the route of transmission: airborne, droplet, or fomites.
    [FONT=MuseoSans-300]Airborne and droplet transmission both technically travel through the air to infect others; the difference lies in the size of the infective particles. Smaller droplets persist in the air longer and are able to travel farther- these droplets are truly “airborne.” Larger droplets can neither travel as far nor persist for very long. Fomites are inanimate objects that can transmit disease if they are contaminated with infectious agents. In this study, a monkey’s cage could have been contaminated when workers were cleaning a nearby pig cage. If the monkey touched the contaminated cage surface and then its mouth or eyes, it could have been infected.
    [FONT=MuseoSans-300]Author Dr. Gary Kobinger suspects that the virus is transmitted through droplets, not fomites, because evidence of infection in the lungs of the monkeys indicated that the virus was inhaled.
    [FONT=MuseoSans-300][FONT=MuseoSans-500]What do these findings mean? First and foremost, Ebola is not suddenly an airborne disease. As expert commentators at ProMED stated, the experiments “demonstrate the susceptibility of pigs to Zaire Ebolavirus and that the virus from infected pigs can be transmitted to macaques under experimental conditions… they fall short of establishing that this is a normal route of transmission in the natural environment.” Furthermore, because human Ebola outbreaks have historically been locally contained, it is unlikely that Ebola can spread between humans via airborne transmission.
    [FONT=MuseoSans-300]However, the study does raise the possibility that pigs are a host for Ebola. If this proves to be true in the wild, there are direct ramifications for prevention and control measures. It is still unclear what role pigs play in the chain of transmission. To continue work on answering this question, the team plans to take samples from pigs in areas known to have recently experienced Ebola outbreaks.
    [FONT=MuseoSans-300]The Disease Daily has previously reported on Dr. Kobinger’s work on the Ebola vaccine.
    [FONT=MuseoSans-300]- See more at: From Pigs to Monkeys, Ebola Goes Airborne | HealthMap

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    You are correct KRVRN:

    "A Liberian man who died in Nigeria's megacity of Lagos on Friday has tested positive for the deadly Ebola virus, the country's health minister has confirmed.
    The man, who was in his 40s, collapsed on arrival in Lagos, a city of 21 million people, on Sunday, and was taken from the airport and put in isolation in a local hospital.
    Nigerian Health Minister Onyebuchi Chukwu said all ports of entry in the country are now on "red alert" and health officials are investigating all people who had contact with the deceased.​"

  • 1
    DedHedRN likes this.

    Thanks for sharing this article 4thGenRN. It seems to have been published in November 2012. It mentions:

    "The reality is that they [the large droplets] are contained and they remain local, if it was really an airborne virus like influenza is it would spread all over the place, and that's not happening."

    This makes sense to me, transferred by large droplets that don't stay airborne for long, but long enough to infect others nearby; not small enough to travel over greater distance like the flu. I wonder why no one is mentioning this study today.

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    I also wonder if Ebola is airborne because I find it difficult to believe that the expert doctors, Brantly and Writebol, failed to practice universal precautions knowing their own lives are at stake. I imagine that they were able to teach their supporting the staff this most basic protocol. I pray that they survive, and if they do, maybe they'll be able to share what went wrong; unless they are prevented from telling the truth lest there be widespread panic.

  • 0

    This recent Ebola outbreak is in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea---not Nigeria. The body of a man who was in Liberia and died, was sent to Nigeria for burial; however, there was national outcry and panic and the body is in quarantine. This is the only known existence of Ebola in Nigeria.

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    preddish, sweetf, sapphire18, and 5 others like this.

    I totally understand your point of view, wanting to avoid spreading disease to your loved one. However, I think nurses who feel this way should work in an area of nursing that doesn't have a great risk of contracting deadly infectious disease, like school nursing for example. Otherwise, backing out of the responsibility to afford all patients competent, unbiased care would be akin to police officers who serve and protect only in certain instances, or firefighters that will only attend blazes that pose no danger.

    The role of life-saver comes with huge responsibility. Good Nurses are brilliant, brave, and noble; they sacrifice a lot, often at personal expense to serve those in the gravest need. That's why Nurses are held in such high esteem.

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    Is this your first semester in school? If it is, maybe you'd get better grades if you took it a little slower at first to get an idea of how to pace your studies and home life.

    If you are a vet at this, then go for it, the CNA and Medical Terms classes are easy and fun. Best wishes.

  • 0

    1) You can apply for grants at, they'll let you know within 24hrs if you qualify.

    2) Try working part-time, a job you can read on would be great.

    3) Apply for scholarships. I know nothing about this.

    4) Loans if absolutely necessary, last resort.

    5) Speak to financial aide advisor.

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    Hello, I'm taking A&P 1 and Nutrition this summer term, following the study objectives given by the professor is loads of help, as well as the integrative software that comes with the text. Then I index what I don't remember, the answers I get wrong on quizzes.

    What tricks are working for you so far?

  • 5

    well, i haven't posted in eons, but that's because i'm so busy working!!! yeaaahhhh. i work with second stage dimentia residents and i love it!! it's amazingly rewarding and the residents are wonderful. it feels so good to finally get to know them and their needs . . . what their triggers are and what soothes them.

    i am so blessed to be able to support them through this stage of their lives. my unit is quiet and peaceful except for the occassional outbursts of laughter from the staff who are great to work with.

    at this place, we attain the level of care that we usually only hear about in our textbooks. i'm feel so fortunate to be working where i am.

  • 1
    gymguy likes this.

    everything you learned is inside of you, just say a prayer, if you pray, and call on it . . . and please shake your nervousness off, a fellow student who knew all the skills failed because she couldn't shake off her perfomance anxiety.

    shake it off and think how triumphant you'll be after you pass!

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    in my group, one to two students shadowed a cna, we went where she went and provided any care that was necessary . . . if you are assertive, you can perform all care while the cna watches, great preparation for the state exam.

    try to do all of the 37 skills during clinicals, especially perineal care, bed bath, showering, bedpan, making an occupied bed, temperature/ pulse/ respiration and blood pressure . . . these are some of the most challenging.

  • 0

    submerse yourself in everything nursing, this board is an excellent place to start. you can get some inexpensive, used anatomy & physiology, organic chemistry, college algebra textbooks or study guides. . . and study while you're waiting to enroll for prereqs.

    look at different nursing programs and compare them, considering prerequisites, quality of nursing courses offered, clinical rotation . . .

    reading about any specialties you're interested in is also a great motivation to move forwaed with your education.

    best wishes!