Researchers identify six distinct COVID-19 symptom clusters


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Kings College London new model predicts which coronavirus patients will require hospitalization, ventilation. Note that skin rash is now considered a common symptom of COVID-19, identified post study initiation.


...The study, which has not been peer-reviewed, divided COVID-19 infections into categories based on the symptoms patients experience. Each type can vary depending on severity.

Researchers based their findings on data taken from a symptom tracker app. It included information on 1,600 patients from the United States and the United Kingdom

The six types are:

  1. Flu-like with no fever. Headache, loss of smell, muscle pains, cough, sore throat, chest pain, but no fever.
  2. Flu-like with fever: Headache, loss of smell, cough, sore throat, hoarseness, fever and loss of appetite.
  3. Gastrointestinal: Headache, loss of smell, loss of appetite, diarrhea, sore throat, chest pain, but no cough.
  4. Severe level one, fatigue: Headache, loss of smell, cough, fever, hoarseness, chest pain and fatigue.
  5. Severe level two, confusion: Headache, loss of smell, loss of appetite, cough, fever, hoarseness, sore throat, chest pain, fatigue, confusion and muscle pain.
  6. Severe level three, abdominal and respiratory: Headache, loss of smell, loss of appetite, cough, fever, hoarseness, sore throat, chest pain, fatigue, confusion, muscle pain, shortness of breath, diarrhea and abdominal pain.

Nearly half of the patients who developed the most severe form of COVID-19 needed hospitalization. By contrast, only 16% of patients with the first type – flu-like with no fever – were hospitalized. ,,,

,,,Because most patients who require breathing support come to the hospital about 13 days after symptom onset, the model could help doctors identify the patients most likely to need intensive care.

"These findings have important implications for care and monitoring of people who are most vulnerable to severe COVID-19," said Dr. Claire Steves, of King’s College London. "If you can predict who these people are at day five, you have time to give them support and early interventions such as monitoring blood oxygen and sugar levels, and ensuring they are properly hydrated – simple care that could be given at home, preventing hospitalizations and saving lives."

COVID-19 sparks six distinct symptom clusters, researchers say

Full Study: Symptom clusters in COVID19: A potential clinical prediction tool from the COVID Symptom study app