What Is A Hyperacute Rejection

  1. Can someone tell me what a hyperacute rejection means and what is the treatment and prognosis? I have to know this for the "care of a transplant patient" but I cant find this anywhere..
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  3. by   Carolanne

    This link kind of nicely outlines what happens with the hyperacute rejection. I typed in hyperacute rejection on Google and lots of stuff came up. Hope this helps you.
  4. by   GracefulRN
    OK, this is probably more than you need or want, but........

    There are four known forms of rejection: hyperacute, accelerated, acute, and chronic. "Hyperacute" rejection is an antibody mediated rejection of the organ which generally occurs hours to days after transplantation. The antibodies in the organ recipients blood stream react with the new organ and result in organ failure as soon as a few hours after transplantation. The kidney and heart are most susceptible to this problem, the liver is relatively resistant. Cross matches are done between a particular kidney and a potential recipient of that kidney to decrease the likelihood that hyperacute rejection will occur.

    As soon as patients are transferred to the transplant floor, the treatment goals are primarily aimed at promoting ambulation, continued pulmonary care, and providing education related to discharge planning.The immediate primary focus post-transplantation is pulmonary care.

    Transplant patients are at great risk for developing opportunistic infections because of the immunosuppressive effects of their medication regimens. Many patients are placed on prophylactic regimens at various points postransplant in an effort to prevent infections.

    Education of the patient on appropriate safeguards that can be practiced is critical. The need for frequent handwashing, avoiding crowded areas and visibly ill people, and practicing good dental hygiene are of utmost importance and cannot be overemphasised. Patients should not perform typical daily chores that expose them unnecessarily to microorganisms. These include such activities as gardening and changing kitty litter or fish tank water

    Daily patient care rounds are instrumental in achieving favorable outcomes and additional weekly multidisciplinary meetings are optimal. The transplant multidisciplinary team is an extensive group of professionals who assist in the health promotion and maintenance of the transplant recipient. The team usually is comprised of professionals from the following disciplines: surgery, nephrology/hepatology, infectious disease, dietary, social work/social services, nursing, transplant coordinators, physical therapy, and pharmacy. In most centers, individuals from these areas provide care in both the inpatient and outpatient settings to afford a continuum specific to this population. The uniqueness of this team is as extraordinary and complicated as the patients it serves.

    Signs and Symptoms of Rejection
    Liver Grafts
    Temperature above 100F
    Tenderness or pain over transplant
    Light colored stool
    Dark colored urine
    Increased liver enzymes
    Normalization of the prothrombin time, Factor V and VII levels, and transaminases should occur within 24 hours after liver transplant.

    Kidney Grafts
    general weakness Fatigue, general weakness
    Temperature above 100F
    Tenderness or pain over transplant
    Increased blood pressure
    Decreased urine output
    Sudden weight gain
    Increased BUN and creatinine
    An eleveated BUN and creatinine with oliguria not responsive to hydration in the kidney recipient is indicative of acute tubular necrosis. Surgical complications of kidney transplant include lymphocele, thrombus and urine leaks

    Because of the overwhelming amount of information that the patient and family must master after transplantation, instructions should be provided in writing to permit easy referencing. The information should be provided on a sixth grade level to ensure that all patients can understand the concepts easily and use the information provided.
    Hope that helps
  5. by   suzanne4
    Very nice note. Thank you..........................