you will find some information and links in this thread:
- pathophysiology/a & p/fluid & electrolyte resources (in nursing student assistant forum)
: big symptom to remember is the patients have a lot of trouble breathing because of pulmonary congestion, but note the symptoms of the breathing compared to the breathing symptoms of respiratory alkalosis. you'll hear them say things like, "i can't catch my breath." you see this when there has been chest trauma, airway obstruction, pulmonary edema, drug overdose, neuromuscular diseases and in copd. the basic pathophysiology of this is that the patient is not clearing carbon dioxide from their body. hypo
ventilation (reduced rate and depth of breathing) causes an increase in carbon dioxide throughout the cells and tissues of the body. the hypo
ventilation results in pulmonary congestion and airway obstruction
which leads to all the breathing difficulties.
- ph below 7.35 and pco2 over 45mmhg
- rapid, shallow respirations
- elevated blood pressure
- elevated cardiac output
- muscle weakness
ventilation, rapid rate of breathing, causes too much carbon dioxide to be exhaled and the ph of the body rises. the cardinal sign of respiratory alkalosis is the deep, rapid breathing, more than 40 breaths per minute, that is similar to kussmaul's respirations (seen in metabolic acidosis
). this kind of breathing leads to neuromuscular and central nervous system disturbances. this will occur in pulmonary diseases such as asthma, as well as in pregnancy, fever, at high altitudes and with acute anxiety. think of the things that would cause a person to breathe very rapidly and cause large losses of carbon dioxide.
- ph elevated above 7.45 and pco2 below 35mmhg
- rapid, deep breathing
- tingling of the extremities
hope this helps.