This mainly depends on whether or not you already have a job set up in Colorado. If so, then getting the temp license should be fine until you have gained residency, you'd have to talk with your contact at your new job to verify. But either way, I'd suggest starting your application by endorsement ASAP because there's so much to it, and from what I hear it takes over a month. First you have to go to nursys.com
and fill that out, and it allows you to search by maiden name. Then you have to fill out the form for license by endorsement
. Right on this form it explains what to do if your name has changed, which is just supply a copy of the document verifying name change, and it even says that the marriage license will work. Regarding you having a CO license, there is nothing in the form that requires you ALREADY be a resident of CO, and the only documentation of residency required is that you are legally allowed to work in the US, ie. passport, driver's license, etc (same as with any job).
This should be all the info you need, I hope you have luck with it!