This is what we need:
Drug Classification: Antibiotics/Antimicrobial Agents
Therapeutic Use: Used to cure/control most infections caused by a variety of microorganisms. Adjuncts to such methods including surgical incision on drainage, pulmonary toilet, and wound debridement.
Brief Mechanism of Action: Destroys of suppresses the growth of infecting microorganisms. Dependent on category, this is accomplished by inhibiting cell wall synthesis, altering cell wall permeability, inhibiting protein synthesis, and inhibiting the synthesis of essential metabolites.
Prototypes (2): Penicillin – Penicillin, Amoxil, Augmentin. Cephalosporins (4 generations) – Ancef, Keflin, Ceclor, Zinacef, Fortaz, Rocephin. Marolides – Zithromax, Biaxin. Lincomycins – Cleocin, Linocin. Aminoglycosides – Nebcin, Garamycin. Tetracyclines – Vibramycin, Minocin. Fluroquinoles – Cipro, Floxin. Sulfonamides – Bactrim.
Side Effects: Abnormal cramping, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, rash, GI upset, fever, uticaria with pruritus, chills, generalized erythema, anaphylaxis, headache, photosensitivity (Tetracyclines), nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity (Aminoglycosides, Fluroquinalones), Ototoxicity (Aminoglycosides).
Nursing Implications: Assess for effectiveness of drug therapy by monitoring signs and symptoms of patient’s infection, including WBC and cultures. Obtain any ordered cultures from patient before beginning medication therapy because this will alter culture results. Carefully assess and monitor for incompatibility between drugs, since multiple drug therapy may be likely. Be alert for signs of allergic symptoms, as well as signs of super-infection (diarrhea, white patches in oral cavity/vaginal area). Monitor serum therapeutic drug levels carefully. Notify prescriber if toxic levels are noted. Administer IV drugs according to manufacturer’s instructions. Infusions should be intermittent, infusion sites should be monitored carefully. Instruct patient to take full cycle of medication therapy, not to share drugs with others and to not take “leftover” antibiotics for a new illness. Instruct patient that antibiotics may alter some home laboratory tests (urine glucose). Instruct patient to report buzzing/ringing in ears or hearing loss to prescriber. Avoid sun and use sun protection measures if photosensitivity occurs. Instruct patient not to double doses, and to take medication on or around the clock basis if ordered (produces a constant blood level).