Electrolyte questions, not sure on answer

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hi, i underlined what i think were the right answers, this has been a very difficult chapter for me. if you can confirm that the answers i have are right or not that would be nice. don't have to tell me the answer.

__a__ 1. which of these terms refers to the maintenance of the body's internal environment within narrow limits?

a.

homeostasis

c.

diffusion

b.

osmosis

d.

elimination

_a___ 2. which of these terms refers to electrically charged ions present in both intracellular and extracellular fluids?

a.

electrolytes

c.

particles

b.

molecules

d.

solutes

__a__ 3. which of these terms describes negatively charged particles within the body?

a.

anions

c.

electrolytes

b.

cations

d.

elements

_d___ 4. water composes what percentage of adult body weight?

a.

10

c.

45

b.

25

d.

60

__d__ 5. a newborn infant's weight is composed of what percentage of water?

a.

35

c.

10

b.

50

d.

80

__c__ 6. which of these gases are important in the human body?

a.

nitrogen and hydrogen

c.

oxygen and carbon dioxide

b.

hydrogen and carbon dioxide

d.

nitrogen and oxygen

__c__ 7. which of these terms describes a substance that in solution yields hydrogen ions with a positive charge?

a.

acid

c.

salt

b.

base

d.

buffer

__c__ 8. which of these terms describes a substance that when dissociated produces ions that will combine with hydrogen ions?

a.

acid

c.

salt

b.

base

d.

buffer

____ 9. when an acid and a base react with each other, which substance is formed?

a.

atom

c.

salt

b.

ion

d.

buffer

____ 10. which of these elements determines ph within the body?

a.

bicarbonate

c.

hydrogen

b.

carbon dioxide

d.

oxygen

____ 11. sodium works to control fluid balance through which of these processes?

a.

active transport

c.

filtration

b.

diffusion

d.

osmosis

____ 12. when a decreased concentration of hydrogen ions occurs within body fluids, what is the result?

a.

they become acidic.

b.

they become alkaline.

c.

carbon ions are retained.

d.

oxygen ions are released into the blood.

notthereyet0

157 Posts

I think the answer to 7 should be "acid" not sure letter, 8 should be buffer, and 12 should be alkaline. Acids give off H+ and therefore you have more acid (as in stomach acid). When combined with bicarb HCO3- it becomes more neutral. That is how the body works for homeostasis, CO2 from lungs make more acidic, and HCO3 from kidneys make more alkaline.

Chemistry is not my strong point but that is my understanding of it. Na or salt is an electrolyte that is responsible for electrolyte balance of the body, it is the major extracellular cation (+ charge) that helps the body repolarize cells, etc. Not used much in pH values as far as my understanding. Good luck!!

midnight*sky

55 Posts

The poster above me is correct, but I found one more error. # 11 should be active transport (a). Na works to control fluid balance via the sodium potassium 'pump' which is a form of active transport. You chose osmosis, which is the movement of H20 thru a semi-permeable membrane, not Na.

Good luck :) F & E balance can be a monster of a subject!

kacefaceRN

21 Posts

Specializes in NICU. Has 1 years experience.

The answers that I would change are #7-10 and 12.

I think #7 and 8 are tricky because you can see how certain answers would be correct. For example, a buffer can yield H+ ions. However, I think you need to look at the most basic and all-encompassing definition. For that reason, I would choose acid (#7) and base (#8) as the answers.

For #9, you need to think back to basic acid-base reactions.

For #10, pH, by definition, describes the concentration of H+. Bicarbonate can affect pH by decreasing the concentration of free hydrogen ions. However, it is still the concentration of H+ that is measured by pH.

Similarly, #12 asks about changes in pH (or H+ concentration). pH levels can be confusing because they seem to change in the opposite way of what you'd expect. If the amount of hydrogen is decreasing, the pH increases, becoming more alkalotic.

If you have .001 mol/L of H+, you have 1x10^-3 mol/L and a pH of 3.

If you have .0001 mol/L of H+, you have 1x10^-4 mol/L and a pH of 4.

Every 1 point increase in pH shows a 10 fold decrease in the concentration of H+.

I think this link explains these concepts better than I can:

http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=58

As for #11, I disagree with the previous poster. I think your answer is correct. The sodium-potassium pump is an active transport process that regulates the membrane potential of cells. However, it is osmosis through which sodium affects fluid balance.

Music in My Heart

2 Articles; 4,102 Posts

Specializes in being a Credible Source. Has 13 years experience.

#7 = acid, #8 = base

A salt is a PRODUCT of an acid-base reaction... an acid + a base combine to form a salt and water. For example, HCl + NaOH -> NaCl + H20

An acid dissociates to yield hydrogen ions; a base dissociates to yield hydroxide ions.

#10: pH roughly means "proportion of H" What does H mean?

#11: Osmotic pressure regulates fluid balance. Na-ATPase transporters don't transport water across the membranes.

#12: Lots of H ions means low pH means very acidic. Few H ions means high pH means alkaline.

Has 7 years experience.

Don't say pH means proportion of H+ as its inverse log and might mess someone up :)

You should get these concepts down solid for sure OP, as they are pretty fundamental.

But yea, look at 7,8,9,10,12 and good luck :)

Music in My Heart

2 Articles; 4,102 Posts

Specializes in being a Credible Source. Has 13 years experience.
Don't say pH means proportion of H+ as its inverse log and might mess someone up :)

You should get these concepts down solid for sure OP, as they are pretty fundamental.

But yea, look at 7,8,9,10,12 and good luck :)

Well, proportion doesn't imply directly or inversely. Strictly speaking, of course, it's not the inverse log but rather the log of the inverse. Regardless, pH relates to hydrogen ion concentration... the more ions, the more acidic and the lower the pH.

Now that I think about it, though, the "p" probably relates more to "power" as in exponents since that's how you clear the logarithm and solve for [H] from the pH. I'd guess it's a German word since they did all the early chemistry and physics.

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