It appears that you seek information about the worker compensation system in the U.S.A. I suggest performing an internet search for "worker compensation basics". Each of the 50 states of the U.S.A. has its own laws and regulations for worker compensation. These laws and policies cover most types of workers, not just nurses.
In addition are USA Federal laws and regulations for worker health protection, particularly the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Here is a good starting point for healthcare workers: http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/compliance_.../index_hc.html
In addition are local (city, county, state) public-health surveillance systems (notification of disease), such as tuberculosis registries. A public-health nurse can provide you details on how those systems and protocols work.
I hope you find some part of this answer useful.