I have to be able to define all three breathing patterns. All of them (from what I can tell) are associated with head trauma or coma breathing; Biots and Cheyne-Stokes are intermittant. Can anyone tell me the differences between these breathing patterns?
Oct 9, '05
Kussmaul respirations, or hyperpnea, are deep, rapid respirations and indicate the body is trying to compensate for severe metabolic acidosis (blow off the excess carbon dioxide in the system) or after strenuous exercise. They have an increased rate, very large tidal volumn (deep breath) and no expiratory pause. In other words there is no stopping between inhaling and exhaling. Typically seen in diabetics who are in ketoacidosis.
Cheyne-Stokes respirations are a phase, or cyclic, type of breathing in response to hypercapnia (carbon-dioxide buildup) in the system. The cycle starts with a smooth increase, or crescendo effect, in the rate and depth of respirations followed by a gradual smooth decrease, or decrescendo effect, in the rate and depth of respirations ending in a short period of apnea that can last from 15 to 60 seconds. Then the cycle repeats itself. Cheyne Stokes respirations result from any condition that slows the blood flow to the brain stem because it slows impulses sending information to the respiratory center of the brain stem. An injury or compromise of the brain above the brain stem will also contribute to the development of Cheyne-Stokes respirations.
Biots' Breathing is irregular respirations with irregular periods of apnea. There is no cyclic nature to them as in Cheyne-Stokes breathing. Breaths are generally of equal depth (also distingishing them from Cheyne-Stokes). Think of them as Cheyne-Stokes cycle gone chaotic.