APA Format Question

  1. 0
    HELP! I have a very specific question about APA that I can't find in the manual OR online!

    Do I have to use the citation for material in a paragraph after the first sentence of the paragraph, at the end of the paragraph, or after every sentence if the whole paragraph contains information from that source?

    Any assistance or referral to the appropriate pages of the manual that address this question would be most appreciated!!!
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  4. 0
    Quote from Zinobile

    Do I have to use the citation for material in a paragraph after the first sentence of the paragraph, at the end of the paragraph, or after every sentence if the whole paragraph contains information from that source?
    Oh, the dreaded APA!!!

    Not sure exactly what you are talking about. Are you only using certain sentences of a paragraph? And are you referencing them in the same paragraph in your paper?
    Last edit by ProfRN4 on Apr 12, '05
  5. 0
    Quote from bonemarrowrn
    Oh, the dreaded APA!!!

    Not sure exactly what you are talking about. Are you only using certain sentences of a paragraph? And are you referencing them in the same paragraph in your paper?
    I am not the prior poster but I have the very same question; let me rephrase. While writing a paper I find that an entire paragraph contains information from one source- ie (harold & maude, 1979). Do I need to reference harold & maude in every sentence or can I reference at the end of the papragraph- how will the reader know the entire paragraph is from harold & maude and that I am not plaguarizing (sp?)?
  6. 0
    Sorry for the nebulous question, let me see if I can make it clearer:

    1) My whole paragraph contains info. obtained from one source. Where does the citation for that source go? After first sentence? At the end of the last sentence? Will it be obvious to the reader (professor) that the information is obtained from the same source despite the fact that it's not cited after every sentence? AND MOST IMPORTANTLY that it is not considered academic dishonesty???

    2) What if I have a paragraph on a topic that uses more than one source? Should I then cite each & every source following each sentence (because sometimes there are many)???

    3) If, in my research, I have found that five or six different sources concur on an issue of importance. Should I use every citation or is it considered more professional, more appealing to the reader (professor) to use only one or two source? Is more better?

    Thanks for any help you can offer.
  7. 0
    Excellent questions. I have referred your question to my university's online writing service. They are our resident experts on APA style. I have a pretty decent grasp of APA, but I don't want to steer you the wrong way When I hear back from them, I will post their response.
  8. 0
    Quote from Zinobile
    Sorry for the nebulous question, let me see if I can make it clearer:

    1) My whole paragraph contains info. obtained from one source. Where does the citation for that source go? After first sentence? At the end of the last sentence? Will it be obvious to the reader (professor) that the information is obtained from the same source despite the fact that it's not cited after every sentence? AND MOST IMPORTANTLY that it is not considered academic dishonesty???

    2) What if I have a paragraph on a topic that uses more than one source? Should I then cite each & every source following each sentence (because sometimes there are many)???

    3) If, in my research, I have found that five or six different sources concur on an issue of importance. Should I use every citation or is it considered more professional, more appealing to the reader (professor) to use only one or two source? Is more better?

    Thanks for any help you can offer.
    This is the answer I received from the online writing resource center experts at my university. Hope this helps! Also, remember that most universities have writing centers specifically designed to help students with questions such as yours. Many of these centers will actually review your papers before you turn them in, to give helpful suggestions

    1. If your paragraph only needs one citation, that citation will go at the end of the paragraph, or wherever you stop using source material. If the paragraph is especially long, then it is certainly acceptable to insert a citation somewhere in the middle as well. The reader should assume that any material that is not common knowledge that appears in the paragraph will be from the one source that is cited.

    2. If you use more than one source in a paragraph, then yes, you should insert the appropriate citations immediately after you finish presenting material from that source. That means that you will have multiple citations in one paragraph, which is comepletely acceptable.

    3. This is your most difficult question. I think only using one or two sources in the citation should be acceptable. You have to begin to question, though, whether the information you're presenting is common knowledge. If it appears in 5, 6, 7, or more sources, is it something that everyone knows or should know already? Does it really need to be cited then? Without seeing your writing, or knowing much about your content, I have a hard time answering this definitively.

    I hope these answers help. As I said above, please visit our website and follow the guidelines for submitting questions and writing on the "e-consultation" page.
  9. 0
    Quote from zinobile
    1) my whole paragraph contains info. obtained from one source. where does the citation for that source go? after first sentence? at the end of the last sentence? will it be obvious to the reader (professor) that the information is obtained from the same source despite the fact that it's not cited after every sentence? and most importantly that it is not considered academic dishonesty???
    it is not academic dishonesty if you are refencing properly. it is my unserstanding that something like this would be in a block quote, either citing the reference at the end (harold & maude, 1978), or at the beginning...[harold and maude, (1978), stated:]

    not sure what you are writing about, but it may be too much to quote an entire paragraph (unless it is absolutley necessary). i would consider trimming it a bit. you could always put ellipses(...) in place of the things that are irrelevant.

    2) what if i have a paragraph on a topic that uses more than one source? should i then cite each & every source following each sentence (because sometimes there are many)???
    yes

    3) if, in my research, i have found that five or six different sources concur on an issue of importance. should i use every citation or is it considered more professional, more appealing to the reader (professor) to use only one or two source? is more better?
    not sure how to answer that. if each source is saying the same thing, i'd think there would be no reason to be redundant (unless you're really trying to prove something new and controversial). as far as more being better, i think it deoends on your professor, and how much they ask for (ie, # of sources to support).

    i hope this helps.

    also there are a gazillion websites on apa. just do a search. they are mostly college specific sites. also try this one (i havent, but my prof. recommended it) its www.nutsandbolts.com (i think)

    also there is a handbook on it. it may be worth the investment
  10. 0
    Thanks for your help with the APA questions, everyone!

    The paper I am writing concerns maintaining the organ donor for harvest after brain death. It is intense and what may seem to be common knowledge or even common sense, I am finding, is disputed by other researchers in certain situations.

    Thanks for your advice!


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