Although I'm not currently working in a nursing home and am currently going into home health, I finished my program fairly recently and did a few weeks worth of clinicals, so alot of the material is still very fresh in my mind. As far as infection control goes (some of this is also from my pre-nursing studies), simple things like washing hands before and after procedures is the easiest way to reduce infection.
Use gloves whenever coming in contact with any sort of bodily fluids and whenever you just feel more comfortable wearing them (especially with patients who have a much lowered immune system due to current illness/infection or those who have some sort of invasive equipment attached--colostomy bag, tracheostomy, tubings, etc.) Wearing gloves in this case is more of a protection for the patients. The elderly have much lower immune systems, so as a CNA, the main goal should be to prevent as many unnecessary hazards as possible for them--from what I've seen so far, alot of CNAs/some nurses seem to sometimes be more concerned about "catching" something from a patient. Most times, these patients have non-communicable diseases that you cannot catch but unfortunately lower their immune systems significantly, leading to secondary infections and making you more of a risk for them than vice versa... Poor patients!
As far as patients in isolation (their door will always have a hazard sign on it reminding you to stop and take proper precautions). There should always be a drawer or shelf set up outside of the room that contain appropriate gear to wear before entering the room (i.e gown, mask, eye wear, gloves, possibly hair covering, etc.) All items available to you should be put on and worn BEFORE entering the room. Visitors of that patient should also be advised to always wear that equipment as well, or they should be asked to leave the room until they do. This is to protect patient and visitors/staff.
After dealing with patients in isolation, the equipment should all be taken off while still in the room, so as not to contaminate anything else (gloves FIRST). The gown should be carefully removed and disposed of inside the room. Afterwards, take out the trash and dispose immediately of whatever you just removed and the patients trash and throw it in the facility trash room. Wash hands immediately following all of this. Never wear gloves, etc. in the hallway when going from place to place. These things should always be taken off in patient room. Always clean the hands and face of the patients after certain procedures and routine activities such as eating (before/after). When possible, immediately dispose of or place in appropriate area, things like soiled linens and clothes. I saw alot of seasoned CNAs lying them on tables and such..just have bags and all materials ready before entering patient room so that you can immediately dispose of these things in the proper area and avoid contaminating anything else. I'll update you if I can think of more, but there really isn't much to it! This is the majority of what I have learned and put into practice so far.
Good luck to you--hope all goes well!!