I need some explanantion regarding research variables. I am currently working on a lit. review and I have to identify the variables. And I am struggling-BIG time! I know that an independent variable is one that can be manipulated by the researcher and dependent is a response that is measured (effect). I know what a demographic variable is. But I am struggling with the research, confounding, and extraneous variables. My lit. review is on "Factors considered important at the end of life by patients, family, physicians, and other care providers." I can easily identify my demographics (age, religion, ...). I am assuming that my research variables would be: patients, family, physicians, and other care providers. So, part of my question is: The researchers surveyed the subjects on 44 attributes of experience at the end of life. Would these be my dependent variables? How do I go about finding the independent variable (I am really thinking this particular one doesn't have one because there is nothing to control by the researcher)? I am feeling overwhelmed and lost-any help would be most greatly appreciated!!!