Heres an idea for Pharmacology help

  1. Just an idea. I am going to do them today.. If you have Kaplan, Listen to the Pharmacology lecture they provide (in the Kaplan complete) its a nice review on each classification & and good review. i know nclex will be giving meds we never hear before but atleast this will help make yeh a little more prepared.

    I also bought the Pharmacology flashcards by Kaplan. they were 22 dollors. of course i wont be able to go through ALL of them , BUT I took out drugs like lithium, digoxin, some heart meds, mental health meds, oral diabetic meds. and im going over them.

    Remember even if you dont know the medication look at the question as a whole and the answers you may be able to figure out atleast what KIND of med it is. for example "A pt with CHF is on ____med. You know the med is probably a calcium channel blocker, a B blocker or something dealing with the heart... go from ther



    Other quick hints
    You want to take IRON with ORANGE JUICE its the only med that u need to take with orange juice
    If you have no idea go with the choice "take with meals" seems to be the better winner
    Fosamax u need to take EARLY AM its a drug for osteoprosis needs to be AM on an EMPTY stomach
    Digoxin theraptutic no more than 2.0
    Antihypertension watch for ORTHASTATIC HYPOTENSION
    ASPRIN=tinnitis
    Morphine sulfate = Pain killer for MI.. (decreases heart preload and after load by venous pooling)
    and med that has MAGNESIUM in the word (remember what mag does, too much =Sedation too little =excitablity and seizures
    CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS - work better than BETA BLOCKERS in African Americans
    Digoxin is usually given .90-1.25 split into doses over 24 hours
    ANTABUSE= patient cannot have or be around anything with alcohol including , anything that has inhalents such as paints, clearners exe.
    DONT GIVE ANYTHING WITH A CHEMO DRUG take the other meds at another time
    anythign that is in the tetrocycline group = NO SUN , their sensitive to the sun. and they must be taken on empty stomach

    ill try to post more if i remember them.. lol
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    About perfectly_4given

    Joined: Jun '09; Posts: 70; Likes: 21

    11 Comments

  3. by   sweetmya
    OMG, love the thread!! I'm very weak in the pharmacology section!! Post more moreeeeeeeeeeee pls. Thanks.
    ANyone else can post how to remember certain drugs, side effects etc by classes?
  4. by   jerzie0820
    wow. thanks for this. here are a few hints i got from a reliable source.
    (sorry guys, i heard it isn't legal to say where they come from).

    Aspirin - assume not to take in combination with any drug/ an anti-coagulate.
    Tylenol - safest pain reliever.
    *motrin, dilaudid and demerol often masks signs and symptoms (such as IOP)
    never drink meds with GRAPEFRUIT.
  5. by   kiminsota
    -ase, -plase=thromolytic agent (think clot dissolvers like Streptase and Activase)
    -azole=antifungal (Miconizole)
    cef-, ceph-=antibiotic
    -cillin=penicillin
    -cycline=antibiotic (tetracycline)
    -dipine=calcium channel blocker (Amlodipine)
    -floxacin=antibiotic
    -micin, -mycin=antibiotic
    nitr-, -nitr-=nitrate/vasodilator (Nitrostat)
    -parin=anticoagulant (heparin, enoxaparin)
    -phylline=bronchodilator
    -prazole=GI antiulcer (Lansoprazole)
    -pril=ACE inhibitor (Lisinopril)
    -sal-, sal-=salicylate/aspirin
    -sartan=antihypertensive (Losartan, Valsartan)
    -sone, -lone, pred-=corticosteroid
    -statin=lipid-lowering
    -terol=bronchodilator (Albuterol)
    -tidine=antiulcer (Cimetidine)
    -zepam, -zolam=benzo/sedative (Diazepam)
  6. by   NaomieRN
    Triglycerides elevation can falsely elevate glycosalated hemoglobin test.
    Adrenergics
    Actions:
    • Stimulate the sympathetic nervous system: increase in peripheral resistance, increase blood flow to heart, bronchodilation, increase blood flow to skeletal muscle, increase blood flow to uterus
    • Stimulate beta-2 receptors in lungs
    • Use for cardiac arrest and COPD Adrenergic Medications
    • Levophed
    • Dopamine
    • Adrenalin
    • Dobutrex Adrenergics Side effects:
    • Dysrhythmias
    • Tremors
    • Anticholinergic effects
    Adrenergics Nursing Considerations:
    • Monitor BP
    • Monitor peripheral pulses
    • Check output

    Anti-Anxiety
    Action:
    • Affect neurotransmitters
    Used for:
    • Anxiety disorders, manic episodes, panic attacks Anti-Anxiety
    Medications:
    • Librium, Xanax, Ativan, Vistaril, Equanil
    Anti-Anxiety
    Side effects:
    • Sedation
    • Confusion
    • Hepatic dysfunction
    Anti-Anxiety
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Potention for addiction/overdose
    • Avoid alcohol
    • Monitor Liver Function AST/ALT
    • Don’t discontinue abruptly, wean off
    • Smoking/caffeine decreases effectiveness






    Antacids
    Actions:
    • Neutralize gastric acids
    Used for:
    • Peptic ulcer
    • Indigestion, reflex esophagitis Antacids Medications
    • Amphojel
    • Milk of Magnesia
    • Maalox Antacids
    Side effects:
    • Constipation
    • Diarrhea
    • Acid rebound
    Antacids
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Interferes with absorption of antibiotics, iron preps, INH, Oral contraceptives
    • Monitor bowel function
    • Give 1-2 hours after other medications
    • 1-3 hours after meals and at HS
    • Take with fluids

    Antiarrhythmics
    Action:
    • Interfere with electrical excitability of heart
    Used for:
    • Atrial fibrillation and flutter
    • Tachycardia
    • PVCs Antiarrhythmics
    Medications:
    • Atropine sulfate
    • Lidocaine
    • Pronestyl
    • Quinidine
    • Isuprel Antiarrhythmics
    Side effects:
    • Lightheadedness
    • Hypotension
    • Urinary retention
    Antiarrhythmics
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Monitor vital signs
    • Monitor cardiac rhythm

    Aminoglycosides (Antibiotics)
    Action:
    • Inhibits protein synthesis in gram-negative bacteria
    Used for:
    • Pseudomonas, E.Coli Aminoglycosides (Antibiotics)
    Medications:
    • Gentamycin
    • Neomycin
    • Streptomycin
    • Tobramycin Aminoglycosides (Antibiotics)
    Side effects:
    • Ototoxicity and Nephrotoxicity
    • Anorexia
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Diarrhea
    Aminoglycosides (Antibiotics)
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Harmful to liver and kidneys
    • Check 8th cranial nerve (hearing)
    • Check renal function
    • Take for 7-10 days
    • Encourage fluids
    • Check peak/trough level

    Allergy: 1st symptom SOB











    Cephalosporins (Antibiotics)
    Action:
    • Inhibits synthesis of bacterial cell wall
    Used for:
    • Tonsillitis, otitis media, peri-operative prophylaxis
    • Meningitis Cephalosporins (Antibiotics)
    Medications:
    • Ceclor
    • Ancef
    • Keflex
    • Rocephin
    • Cefoxitin Cephalosporins (Antibiotics)
    Side effects:
    • Bone marrow depression: caution with anemic, thrombocytopenic patients
    • Superinfections
    • Rash
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Take with food
    • Cross allergy with PCN
    • Avoid alcohol
    • Obtain C&S before first dose: to make sure medication is effective against disease/bacteria
    • Can cause false-positive for proteinuria/glycosuria

    Fluoroquinolones (Antibiotics)
    Action:
    • Interferes with DNA replication in gram-negative bacteria
    Used for:
    • E.Coli, Pseudomonas, S. Aureus Fluoroquinolones
    (Antibiotics)
    Medications:
    • Cipro Fluroquinolones
    (Antibiotics)
    Side effects:
    • Diarrhea
    • Decreased WBC and Hematocrit
    • Elevated liver enzymes (AST, ALT)
    • Elevated alkaline phosphatase
    Nursing Considerations:
    • C&S before starting therapy
    • Encourage fluids
    • Take 1 hour ac or 2 hour pc (food slows absorption)
    • Don’t give with antacids or iron preparation
    • Maybe given with other medications (Probenicid: for gout)

    Macrolide (Antibiotics)
    Action:
    • Binds to cell membrane and changes protein function
    Used for:
    • Acute infections
    • Acne
    • URI
    • Prophylaxis before dental procedures if allergic to PCN Macrolide (Antibiotics)
    Medications:
    • Erythromycin
    • Clindamycin Macrolide (Antibiotics)
    Side effects:
    • Diarrhea
    • Confusion
    • Hepatotoxicity
    • Superinfections
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Take 1hr ac or 2-3 hr pc
    • Monitor liver function
    • Take with water (no fruit juice)
    • May increase effectiveness of: Coumadin and Theophylline (bronchodilator)

    Penicillin
    Action:
    • Inhibits synthesis of cell wall
    Used for:
    • Moderate to severe infections
    • Syphilis
    • Gonococcal infections
    • Lyme disease Penicillin
    Medications:
    • Amoxicillin
    • Ampicillin
    • Augmentin Penicillin
    Side effects:
    • Stomatitis
    • Diarrhea
    • Allergic reactions
    • Renal and Hepatic changes
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Check for hypersensitivity
    • Give 1-2 hr ac or 2-3 hr pc
    • Cross allergy with cephalosporins

    Sulfonamides (Antibiotics)
    Action:
    • Antagonize essential component of folic acid synthesis
    Used for:
    • Ulcerative colitis
    • Crohn’s disease
    • Otitis media
    • UTIs Sulfonamides (Antibiotics)
    Medications:
    • Gantrisin
    • Bactrim
    • Septra
    • Azulfidine Sulfonamides (Antibiotics)
    Side effects:
    • Peripheral Neuropathy
    • Crystalluria
    • Photosensitivity
    • GI upset
    • Stomatitis
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Take with meals or foods
    • Encourage fluids
    • Good mouth care
    • Antacids will interfere with absorption

    Tetracyclines
    (Antibiotics)
    Action:
    • Inhibits protein sythesis
    Used for:
    • Infections
    • Acne
    • Prophylaxis for opthalmia neonatorum TEtracyclines
    (Antibiotics)
    Medications:
    • Vibramycin
    • Panmycin Tetracyclines (Antibiotics)
    Side effects:
    • Discoloration of primary teeth if taken during pregnancy or if child takes at young age
    • Glossitis
    • Rash
    • Phototoxic reactions
    Nursing considerations:
    • Take 1 hr ac or 2-3 hr pc
    • Do not take with antacids, milk, iron
    • Note expiration date
    • Monitor renal function
    • Avoid sunlight

    UTIs
    • Medication:
    o Furadantin
    • Action:
    o Anti-infective
    • Side effects:
    o Asthma attacks
    o Diarrhea
    • Nursing Considerations:
    o Give with food or milk
    o Monitor pulmonary status

    UTIs
    • Medication
    o Mandelamine
    • Action:
    o Anti-infective
    • Side effects:
    o Elevated liver enzymes
    • Nursing Considerations:
    o Give with cranberry juice to acidify urine
    o Limit alkaline foods: vegetables, milk, almonds, coconut





    UTIs
    • Medication
    o Pyridium
    • Side effects:
    o Headache
    o Vertigo
    • Action
    o Urinary tract analgesic
    • Nursing Consideration
    o Tell patient urine will be orange

    Anticholinergics
    Action:
    • Inhibits action of acethylcholine and blocks parasympathetic nerves (affects heart, eyes, respiratory tract, GI tract and the bladder)
    • Dilates pupil, causes bronchodilation and decreased secretions
    • Decrease GI motility secretions
    Used for:
    • Opthalmic exam
    • Motion sickness
    • Pre-operative Anticholinergic Medications:
    • Pro-Banthine
    • Atropine
    • Scopolamine Anticholinergic
    Side Effects:
    • Blurred vision
    • Dry mouth
    • Urinary retention
    • Chage in heart rate
    Nursing Consideration:
    • Monitor output
    • Contraindicated with glaucoma
    • Give 30 min ac, hs, or 2hr pc
    • Contraindicated: paralytic ileus, BPH

    Anticoagulants
    Action:
    • Blocks conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
    Used for:
    • Pulmonary embolism
    • Venous thrombosis
    • Prophylaxis after acute MI Anticoagulants
    Medications:
    • Heparin Anticoagulants (Heparin)
    Side Effects:
    • Hematuria
    • Tissue irritation
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Monitor clotting time or Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)
    • Normal 20-45 sec
    • Therapeutic level 1.5-2.5 times control
    • Antagonist—Protamine Sulfate
    • Give SC or IV

    Anticoagulant
    Action:
    • Interferes with synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors
    Used for:
    • Pulmonary embolism
    • Venous thrombosis
    • Prophylaxis after acute MI Anticoagulant
    Medication:
    • Coumadin Anticoagulant (Coumadin)
    Side Effects:
    • Hemorrhage, Alopecia
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Monitor Prothrombin Test (PT)
    • Normal 9-12 sec
    • Therapeutic level 1.5 times control
    • Antagonist—Vitamin K (AquaMEPHYTON)
    • Monitor for bleeding
    • Give PO





    Anticonvulsants
    Action:
    • Decreases flow of calcium and sodium across neuronal membranes
    Used for:
    • Seizures Anticonvulsant
    Medications:
    • Dilantin
    • Luminal
    • Depakote
    • Tegretol
    • Klonopin Anticonvulsant
    Side effects:
    • Respiratory depression
    • Aplastic anemia
    • Gingival hypertrophy
    • Ataxia
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Don’t discontinue abruptly
    • Monitor I&O
    • Caution with use of medications that lower seizure threshold: MAO inhibitors & anti-psychotics
    • Good mouth care
    • Take with food
    • May turn urine pinkish-red/pinkish-brown

    Anti-Depressants Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAO)
    Action:
    • Causes increases concentration of neurotransmitters
    Used for:
    • Depression
    • Chronic pain Anti-Depressants
    (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors)
    Medications:
    • Marplan
    • Nardil
    • Parnate Anti-Depressants
    (Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors)
    Side effects:
    • Hypertensive Crisis (Sudden headache, diaphoretic, palpitations, stiff neck, intracranial hemorrhage) with food that contain Tyramine
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Avoid foods containing Tyramine: Aged cheese, liver, yogurt, herring, beer and wine, sour cream, bologna, pepperoni, salami, bananas, raisins, and pickled products
    • Monitor output
    • Takes 4 weeks to work
    • Don’t combine with sympathomometics vasoconstrictors, and cold medications

    Anti-Depressants
    Selective Serontonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI)
    Action:
    • Inhibits CNS uptake of serotonin
    Used for:
    • Depression
    • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    • Bulimia Anti-Depressants
    Selective Serontonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI)
    Medications:
    • Paxil
    • Prozac
    • Zoloft Anti-Depressants
    Selective Serontonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI)
    Side effects:
    • Anxiety
    • GI upset
    • Change in appetite and bowel function
    • Urinary retention
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Suicide precautions
    • Takes 4 weeks for full effect
    • Take in a.m.
    • May urine to pinkish-red or Pinkish-brown
    • Can be taken with meals
    Anti-Depressants (Tricyclics)
    Action:
    • Inhibits reuptake of neurotransmitters
    Used for:
    • Depression
    • Sleep apnea Anti-Depressants (Tricyclics)
    Medications:
    • Norpramin
    • Elavil
    • Tofranil Anti-Depressants (Tricyclics)
    Side Effects:
    • Sedation/Confusion
    • Anticholinergics affects
    • Postural Hypotension
    • Urinary retention
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Suicide precautions/2-6 weeks to work
    • Take at hs/Don’t abruptly halt
    • Avoid alcohol/OTC /Photosensitivity

    Insulin
    (Regular, Humulin R)
    Type: Fast acting
    Onset: -1 hr
    Peak: 2-4 hr
    Duration: 6-8 hr Insulin
    (NPH, Humulin N)
    Type: Intermediate acting
    Onset: 2hr
    Peak: 6-12hr
    Duration 18-26hr Insulin
    (Ultralente, Humulin U)
    Type: Slow acting
    Onset: 4hr
    Peak: 8-20hr
    Duration: 24-36hr Insulin
    (Humulin 70/30)
    Type: Combination
    Onset: hr
    Peak: 2-12hr
    Duration: 24hr

    Antidiabetic Agents
    Action:
    • Stimulates insulin release from beta cells in pancreas
    Used for:
    • Type 2 diabetes (NIDDM) Antidiabetic Agents
    Medications:
    • Diabinese
    • Orinase
    • Dymelor
    • Micronase Antidiabetic Agents
    Side Effects:
    • Hypoglycemia
    • Allergic skin reactions
    • GI upset
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Take before breakfast
    • Monitor glucose levels
    • Avoid alcohol, sulfonamides, Oral Contraceptives, (MAO), aspirin because they help to make drug work better

    Hypoglycemic Agent
    Action:
    • Stimulates liver to change glycogen to glucose
    Used for:
    • Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemic Agent
    Medication:
    • Glucagon Hypoglycemic Agent
    Side Effects:
    • Hypotension
    • Bronchospasm
    Nursing Considerations:
    • May repeat in 15min
    • Give carbohydrates orally to prevent secondary hypoglycemic reactions

    Antidiarrheals
    Action:
    • Slows peristalsis
    • Increases tone of sphincters
    Used for:
    • Diarrhea Antidiarrheals
    Medications:
    • Kaopectate
    • Lomotil
    • Imodium
    • Paregoric Antidiarrheals
    Side Effects:
    • Constipation
    • Anticholinergic effects (urinary retention, dry mouth)
    Nursing Considerations:
    • Do not use with abdominal pain
    • Monitor for urinary retention
    • Give 2hr before or 3 hr after other meds


  7. by   Innurse78
    HTN meds:

    All meds ending in "pril" are ace inhibitors and can cause a cough

    All meds ending in "lol" are beta blockers

    All sartins are used in place of Ace inhibitors if the pt gets a cough.

    Do not give garlic when taking ASA as garlic also thins the blood

    Do not give Kava when pt is taking Sinemet

    Synthroid meds also increase the Pt/INR ratio of a pt on Coumadin
    Last edit by Innurse78 on Jun 22, '09
  8. by   yesdog
    Thank you everyone that has contributed to this thread!!!!! Drugs are my biggest fear regarding the NCLEX. I am going to learn all of your info! Thank you from the bottom of my heart!
  9. by   yesdog
    OK...here is my contribution. I hope this helps someone!

    Morphine: side-effects MORPHINE:
    Myosis
    Out of it (sedation)
    Respiratory depression
    Pneumonia (aspiration)
    Hypotension
    Infrequency (constipation, urinary retention)
    Nausea
    Emesis

    Tricyclic antidepressants: members worth knowing
    "I have to hide, the CIA is after me":
    Clomipramine Imipramine Amitrptyline
    - If want the next 3 worth knowing, the DNDis also after me:
    Desipramine Norrtriptyline Doxepin

    Patent ductus arteriosus: treatment
    "Come In and Close the door": INdomethacin is used to Close PDA

    SIADH-inducing drugs ABCD:
    Analgesics: opioids, NSAIDs
    Barbiturates
    Cyclophosphamide/ Chlorpromazine/ Carbamazepine
    Diuretic (thiazide)

    Vir-named drugs: use"-vir at start, middle or end means for virus": - Drugs:
    Abacavir,
    Acyclovir,
    Amprenavir,
    Cidofovir,
    Denavir,
    Efavirenz,
    Indavir,
    Invirase,
    Famvir,
    Ganciclovir,
    Norvir,
    Oseltamivir,
    Penciclovir,
    Ritonavir,
    Saquinavir,
    Valacyclovir,
    Viracept,
    Viramune,
    Zanamivir,
    Zovirax.

    Phenobarbitone: side effects
    Children are annoying (hyperkinesia, irritability, insomnia, aggression).
    Adults are dosy (sedation, dizziness, drowsiness).

    Thrombolytic agents USA:
    Urokinase Streptokinase Alteplase (tPA)

    Narcotic antagonists
    The Narcotic Antagonists are NAloxone and NAltrexone. - Important clinically to treat narcotic overdose.

    Routes of entry: most rapid ways meds/toxins enter body
    "Stick it, Sniff it, Suck it, Soak it":
    Stick = Injection
    Sniff = inhalation
    Suck = ingestion
    Soak = absorption

    Anticholinergic side effects
    "Know the ABCD'S of anticholinergic side effects":
    Anorexia
    Blurry vision
    Constipation/ Confusion
    Dry Mouth
    Sedation/ Stasis of urine

    Atropine use: tachycardia or bradycardia
    "A goes with B": Atropine used clinically to treat Bradycardia.

    Aspirin: side effects ASPIRIN:
    Asthma
    Salicyalism
    Peptic ulcer disease/ Phosphorylation-oxidation uncoupling/ PPH/ Platelet disaggregation/ Premature closure of PDA
    Intestinal blood loss
    Reye's syndrome
    Idiosyncracy
    Noise (tinnitus)

    Morphine: effects at mu receptor PEAR:
    Physical dependence
    Euphoria
    Analgesia
    Respiratory depression

    Beta-1 vs Beta-2 receptor location "You have 1 heart and 2 lungs":
    Beta-1 are therefore primarily on heart. Beta-2 primarily on lungs.

    SSRIs: side effects SSRI:
    Serotonin syndrome
    Stimulate CNS
    Reproductive disfunctions in male
    Insomnia

    Warfarin: action, monitoring WePT:
    Warfarin works on the extrinsic pathway and is monitored by PT.

    Propranolol and related '-olol' drugs: usage"olol" is just two backwards lower case b's. Backward b's stand for "beta blocker". - Beta blockers include acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, oxprenolol, propranolol.

    Depression: 5 drugs causing it PROMS:
    Propranolol
    Reserpine
    Oral contraceptives
    Methyldopa
    Steroids

    Lead poisoning: presentation ABCDEFG:
    Anemia
    Basophilic stripping
    Colicky pain
    Diarrhea
    Encephalopathy
    Foot drop
    Gum (lead line)

    Cholinergics (eg organophosphates): effects
    If you know these, you will be "LESS DUMB":
    Lacrimation
    Excitation of nicotinic synapses
    Salivation
    Sweating
    Diarrhea
    Urination
    Micturition
    Bronchoconstriction

    Benzodiazepines: actions
    "Ben SCAMs Pam into seduction not by brain but by muscle":
    Sedation
    anti-Convulsant
    anti-Anxiety
    Muscle relaxant
    Not by brain: No antipsychotic activity.

    Teratogenic drugs "W/ TERATOgenic":
    Warfarin
    Thalidomide
    Epileptic drugs: phenytoin, valproate, carbamazepine
    Retinoid
    ACE inhibitor
    Third element: lithium
    OCP and other hormones (eg danazol)

    Gynaecomastia-causing drugs DISCOS:
    Digoxin
    Isoniazid
    Spironolactone
    Cimetidine
    Oestrogens
    Stilboestrol

    Osmotic diuretics: members GUM:
    Glycerol
    Urea
    Mannitol

    Antibiotics contraindicated during pregnancy MCAT:
    Metronidazole
    Chloramphenicol
    Aminoglycoside
    Tetracycline

    Lithium: side effects LITH:
    Leukocytosis
    Insipidus [diabetes insipidus, tied to polyuria]
    Tremor/ Teratogenesis
    Hypothyroidism
  10. by   mmims
    Wow what a great thread. Pharm is definitly one of my weak points. Thanks so much the helpful information.
  11. by   nolongeributhe09
    Thank so much! I am week at pharmocology. It is very helpful!!!!
  12. by   misscherie
    A really good website with a list of drug suffixes in a simple table!

    http://www.takerx.com/class.html
  13. by   caliotter3
    Thanks for posting this link misscherie.

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