If time is important, you can go to a community college and get your associates degree in nursing, and take the boards (NCLEX) to become an RN. You will get paid the same entry level salary as an RN with a Bachelors degree. If you still want to get your bachelors, you can bridge to a BSN. Many colleges offer RN to BSN programs completely online or almost completely online, and this may take as little as 1 - 2 years, and you could work as an RN at the same time and hav a decent income. You can also bridge from an associates degree RN to MSN through many programs, and it works in the same way - online for the most part - then you would be able to be a burse practitioner, etc without actually getting your BSN first. You go right from ASN to MSN.
About being a surgical nurse. If you mean being an OR nurse, this does usually require an extended orientation time in the hospital. Many hospitals will make you pay $3000 to $4000 for this extra training, and some hospitals will train you for free, but in exchange you have to sign a 2 year contract that begins after your orientation (which may take about 9 months). If you break the contract, you have to pay back the $3000-4000 immediately. Also, at our local hospital, if you work in the OR, you immediately get paid $1-2/hr extra over the normal entry level salary while you are orienting for 9 months. After orientation, you get $4-6/hr extra over the entry level salary your peers in different departments will be making (plus differentials). Many hospitals do require their OR nurses to take a lot of call, but on the other hand, you work pretty nice hours - at our local hospital, they work Mon-Fri from 7A - 3P (plus call), no holidays or weekends (except if you are called in). This may go without saying, but you have to be ACLS and PALS certified (Advanced Cardiac Life Support - Adult & Peds) to work in the OR. Hospitals will generally provide these courses for you.
Hope this is helpful, and good luck in your endeavors. Nursing is a wonderful field to get into!