i have been assigned a burn case study for a&p 1. this seems to be a pretty popular case study, with different percentages, but i haven't found any definite answers on the web. although we are allowed to do this as a group, i wanted to make sure i have all the correct answers. so, i'm asking the allnurses.com's rn's, instead of relying on other non-nurses guesses. thanks for your help!
i have pasted the case study below, and typed my answer below each question. thanks!
on the first day after arriving in australia for christmas vacation, an nyu (new york) student plays out in the sun for 6 hours. later that night he notices that the skin on his arms and legs has become red, swollen and extremely painful. by morning all of the afflicted areas have developed numerous blisters. these areas cover about 27% of his trunk (each front and back) and about 42% of his arms and legs (each front and back).
1. what organ system has been damaged?
the integumentary system has been damaged.
2. name the tissues that have been afflicted?
stratified squamous epithelium (keratinized) in the epidermis, areolar connective tissue, and some dense irregular connective tissue in the dermis have been afflicted.
3. what type of burn has the student received? is it a second or third degree burn? explain.
the student received a 2nd degree burn noted by the blisters and extreme pain.
4. what type of radiation has caused the burn?
the burn was caused by ultraviolet (uv) radiation.
5. list all of the layers of the skin that have been damaged but not killed.
the epidermis ( stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale), and the upper region of the dermis (papillary layer).
6. list all of the layers of the skin that have been killed (including those considered nonliving).
no layers are killed with 2nd degree burns, just damaged.
7. what tissue repair process causes the blistering?
tissue regeneration causes the blistering.
8. why is this type of burn so painful?
the dermis has many nerve endings.
a burn is considered critical and should receive prompt medical attention if:
> (greater than) 25% of the body is covered by 2nd degree burns or
> (greater than) 10% of the body is covered by 3rd degree burns
9. what percentage of the total body surface has been burned? show your calculations(use the rule of 9 estimation found in the book)!
front & back of trunk: 36%, front & back of arms: 18%, front & back of legs: 36%.
(36% x 27%) =10% (36% x 42%)=15% (18% x 42%)=10%
the percentage of total body surface that has been burned is 35%.
10. is the burn critical? should the student seek medical attention?
the burn is considered critical because the student has a 2nd degree burn on over 25% of his body, and yes, he should seek medical attention.
11. list all of the body functions that may be disrupted by such a burn.
the following systems may have disrupted functions: integumentary, nervous, muscular, and lymphatic.
12. when the student returns to new york one of his friends tells him that now is the best time for him to get/keep his tan and that he should immediately start visiting a tanning salon. is this wise? why or why not?
this is not a wise suggestion. the tissues are already damaged. further increased uv radiation increases the risk for skin cancer, or further damage to the skin.