I apologize if I seem to be attacking anyone, that is not my intent. I'm just dumbfounded and saddened at the "at just happens and can't be helped" attitude. It can be helped!
There are many warning signs long before the childs head is delivered - fetal macrosomia,
maternal diabetes/gestational diabetes, maternal obesity, gestation over 40 weeks, short maternal stature, platypelloid pelvis,
maternal weight gain of more than 35 lbs., protracted first stage of labor, prolonged second stage, breech birth (or other abnormal presentation), history of dystocia births, history of large babies, ALL of these are warning signes that occur long before the head is delivered. I've never known a doc to notify a mom of the risks of delivering a baby when these warning signs are present.
To answer your questions, the specific case I have in mind involves a 1st time pregnancy, mom gained 75 lbs., was never tested for gestational diabetes, u/s showed 10 lb. at 36 weeks, prolonged 1st stage, induced with pit, deep varying decels on the baby, prolonged 2nd stage, "turtling" of the head, shoulder dystocia, and finally the baby was pulled out so hard the cord snapped. Apgar was 2 at 1 min, baby was intubated and resuscitated and mom was told feel lucky he was alive. He weighed 11 lb. 6 oz., right arm limp, no clavicle fracture. C5 - C7 torn and mom was told to go home and wait 3 years to see what happens with the arm.
What would you do?