Firstly, YOU need to take responsibility for knowing about your patient, not get the information from your instructor or nurse. We arrive to the unit and our instructor gives a very brief description of a patient (chief complaint, if they are in isolation, fluid restrictions) and a someone volunteers to take the patient. He goes down the list until everyone has a patient. We spend about 30 minutes in the EMR and look at the H&P, ER report, labs, CT/MRI reports. We then go meet our patient and have them tell us why they came to the hospital and do a physical assessment. The instructor pulls each student aside and says "tell me about your patient." He asks about any lab values that are high, low, or pertinent to the reason they are in the hospital; what is causing the labs to be abnormal; what meds they are on and why. We are expected to act like we are the nurse taking over the care of the patient and not a nursing student who is fed all the information about the patient.
Maybe the problem is that you are given multiple patients instead assigned to one patient. You need to become competent at understanding the whole picture on one patient before handling multiple patients.
It seems to be a common theme with a lot of nursing school
clinicals: students briefly scan the chart (not really knowing what they are looking at), do an assessment, vitals, some clinical skills, CNA work, and maybe observe the nurse. No real depth of the pathophysiology of the problem the patient came to the hospital for and the comorbidities that affect the problem. The problems the patient has is irrelevant because they treat them all the same, except for looking up the different drugs the patients are on. The instructors are so focused on passing meds or doing skills that they don't allow the student spend time with the patient to have them explain the progression of their health issues and how they are intertwined. Eventually the student talks to enough patients that it starts to click when patients have the same progression of similar health issues (CHF patients develop pulmonary and peripheral edema; which requires a diuretic, which causes hypo or hyperkalemia; which has an effect on the heart).