what is a newborn at risk for? even a healthy infant. how is the infant feeding? are they latching on? was this a vag birth? was the baby full term? what about mom? how is she with the baby? are they bonding? how does mom feel about the baby? how old is mom? is mom understanding what the diagnosis is indicative of? what learning does mom need to care properly for baby? is this her first baby?
thermoregulation in a newborn is a neurological system adaptation to extrauterine life. newborns lose body heat, and lose it rapidly, 4 ways because their neurological systems are not fully developed at birth:
- conduction (their warm body heat transfers to cooler objects that they come into direct contact with)
- evaporation from exposure of wet skin surfaces lost to the atmosphere
- convection (their body heats transfers to the air surrounding them)
- radiation (their warm body heat transfers to cooler objects around them)
in newborns is due to immature compensation (adaptation to) the environmental temperature.
in other words, when the newborn encounters conduction, evaporation, convection and/or radiation when they come into this world, hypothermia occurs and they lose body heat and become hypothermic. once body heat is lost in a newborn, their immature system compensates by
(here comes the pathophysiology of hypothermia, or ineffective thermoregulation
- increasing their metabolism and increasing use of glucose and oxygen (to generate more heat)
- this causes their respiratory rate to increase leading to respiratory distress
- leads to hypoglycemia
- leads to metabolic acidosis
- leads to vasoconstriction (as the body attempts to retain heat)
- increasing cold leads to the production of fatty acids that interferes with bilirubin transport and can lead to jaundice
what does the hsv diagnosis mean for the baby? (this is where google and doing your detective work will be required)neonatal herpes simplex - symptoms, tests, treatment
active herpes simplex virus is associated with spontaneous abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy and an increased risk of preterm labor after 20 weeks’ gestation. if a patient has active herpes around the time of the estimated date of delivery, cesarean section is the preferred method of delivery. infected infants can develop the following signs and symptoms after an incubation period of 2 to 12 days: fever, hypothermia, jaundice, seizures, poor feeding, and vesicular skin lesions.
so what would you have to look for in the infant with these symptoms? does the baby have lesions? where are they? what does mom need to know? does she need to know how to care for the lesions? what information does she need to know about the meds for baby? what does mom need to ab aware of? is mom treated for her hsv? why is a baby with an infection a potential dangerous situation? can an infant have the immune system strong enough to fight the infection without becoming critically ill and developing hsv encephalitis? who | standards for maternal and neonatal care
the biggest thing about a care plan is the assessment. the second is knowledge about the disease process.
here are the steps of the nursing process and what you should be doing in each step when you are doing a written care
plan: from daytonite (rip)
a care plan is nothing more than the written documentation of the nursing process you use to solve one or more of a patient's nursing problems. the nursing process itself is a problem solving method that was extrapolated from the scientific method used by the various science disciplines in proving or disproving theories. one of the main goals every nursing school wants its rns to learn by graduation is how to use the nursing process to solve patient problems.
- assessment (collect data from medical record, do a physical assessment of the patient, assess adls, look up information about your patient's medical diseases/conditions to learn about the signs and symptoms and pathophysiology)
- determination of the patient's problem(s)/nursing diagnosis (make a list of the abnormal assessment data, match your abnormal assessment data to likely nursing diagnoses, decide on the nursing diagnoses to use)
- planning (write measurable goals/outcomes and nursing interventions)
- implementation (initiate the care plan)
- evaluation (determine if goals/outcomes have been met)
just like you need a recipe care to make a cake from scratch. a care plan is your recipe card to caring for your patient and what to look for while you are caring for them.
the biggies with all newborns are temperature and feeding. if there are problems with either of these (or baby has a diabetic mom), blood sugar will also be a concern. low temp and inadequate intake can use up blood sugar as the body uses it for fuel. diabetic moms have kids who are used to insulin bringing the blood sugar down. after birth, that insulin keeps on pumping for a little while and can send blood sugar plummeting.
another thing to keep an eye on is jaundice from hyperbilirubinemia.....common in babies more common in sick babies that may not be feeding well. what about the umbilical cord site? what would you look for there? if the baby is febrile fluid balance is distrubed. how many wet diapeer would baby need?
risk for infection r/t break in skin integrity at umbilical cord site aeb..........
ineffective thermoregulation r/t immature compensation for changes in environmental temperature
imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements r/t poor feeding behaviors
infection r/t hsv infection aeb........
risk for alteration in fluid/nutrition r/t .......aeb........
i hope this helps.