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welcome to an! we are the largest nursing community on the internet. we are happy to help with home work but we won't do it for you. we will lead you to the right path and help you find the answer for yourself.
it is helpful for us to know what semester you are and how far along in the process you are so i don't have to always repeat the basics.
describe as accurately as possible the patient or group of patients of interest
intervention (or cause, prognosis)
what is the main intervention or therapy you wish to consider?
including an exposure to disease, a diagnostic test, a prognostic factor, a treatment, a patient perception, a risk factor, etc.
is there an alternative treatment to compare?
including no disease, placebo, a different prognotic factor, absence of risk factor, etc.
what is the clincial outcome, including a time horizon if relevant?
in patients with acute bronchitis,
reduce sputum production, cough or days off.?
in children with cancer
what are the current treatments
in the management of fever and infection?
among family-members of patients undergoing diagnostic procedures
does standard care,
listening to tranquil music, or audiotaped comedy routines
make a difference in the reduction of reported anxiety.
asking a good question (pico)picoasking the right question is a difficult skill to learn, yet it is fundamental to the evidence-based decision-making process. this process almost always begins with a patient question or problem. a "well-built" question should include four parts, referred to as pico that identify the patient problem or population (p), intervention (i), comparison (c) and outcome(s) (o).
the first step in developing a well-built question is to identify the patient problem or population. describe either the patient's chief complaint or generalize the patient's condition to a larger population.
when identifying the p in pico it is helpful to ask:
how could you describe a group with a similar problem?
how you would describe the patient to a colleague?
what are the important characteristics of this patient?
patients main concern or chief complaint
disease or health status
age, race, sex, previous ailments, current medications
the p phrase could be more detailed if the added information influences the results you expect to find.
identifying the intervention is the second step in the pico process. it is important to identify what you plan to do for that patient. this may include the use of a specific diagnostic test, treatment, adjunctive therapy, medication or the recommendation to the patient to use a product or procedure. the intervention is the main consideration for that patient or client.
the comparison is the third phase of the well-built question, which is the main alternative you are considering. it should be specific and limited to one alternative choice in order to facilitate an effective computerized search.
the comparison is the only optional component in the pico question. one may only look at the intervention without exploring alternatives, and in some cases, there may not be an alternative.
the outcome is the final aspect of the pico question. it specifies the result(s) of what you plan to accomplish, improve or affect and should be measurable. outcomes may consist of:
relieving or eliminating specific symptoms
improving or maintaining function
or enhancing esthetics.