Are you talking about meds which need a written prescription vs. which meds can be 'called in' to the pharmacy?
Do you mean meds for a patient in the hospital where you take a verbal/phone order for the doctor?
When I read the OP, I thought you meant the latter. In the case of the latter, I can take a verbal order for just about any medicine, including narcotics (but I'm sure it varies by facility policy and may vary state to state).
As for up to date information in nursing school
...I can remember a lot of stuff that was taught in school and that was in NCLEX review books that was directly contradicted by latest research (for example, the Homan test or floating an inhaler to see if there was any medication left in in).