One case-control study of patients with end-stage renal disease suggested that long term consumption of acetaminophen may significantly increase the risk of ESRD particularly in patients taking more than two pills per day.
This research was conducted on 1,700 women, and spanned 11 years. Overall, it showed that 10% of the women experienced a decline in their kidney function, indicating that their kidneys were being harmed by acetaminophen .
Women who took between 1,500 and 9,000 tablets over their lifetimes raised their risk of kidney impairment by 64%, and women who took more than 9,000 tablets increased their risk even further.
It is estimated that over-the-counter painkillers are responsible for killing over 40,000 Americans each year -- that includes aspirin, acetaminophen, and other painkillers.
Chronic pain patients, especially the elderly with RA are prescribed vicoden for years on end are finding themselves in chronic renal failure.
Codeine itself has a weak binding affinity to mu-opioid receptors, 5% to 10% of codeine is converted into morphine, which has a high binding affinity to mu-opioid receptors. Conversion of codeine to morphine occurs in the liver via cytochrome P450, some drugs may interfere with the effectiveness of codeine (ie) certain SSRIs (also converted via cytochrome P450) decrease the analgesic effect of codeine.
While codeine alone is not as effective, especially went taken with SSRI's, combining acetaminophen with codeine appears to have long term detrimental effects which, in part, could be avoided by removing acetaminophen from the equation.
Though the folks at Johnson & Johnson don't want to hear that....